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    Editor’s Comment: The following Articles and Links are for those of you who are serious about hearing from true science. There is a lot of information here so scroll down and click on a link you be interested in.

    The Week That Was: 2016-10-01 (October 1, 2016)
    Brought to You by The Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Quote of the Week.
    ”As a human being, one has been endowed with just enough intelligence to be able to see clearly how utterly inadequate that intelligence is when confronted with what exists.” – Albert Einstein

    Number of the Week: 45,185 feet (13,772 meters or 8.56 miles)

    By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Hubris: Michael Kelly, Emeritus Prince Philip Professor of Technology of Cambridge University has written an excellent, short book review of Hubris: The Troubling Science, Economics and Politics of Climate Change by Michael Hart, a scholar who has spent a decade working on the book.

    Kelly’s comments reflect many of the views held by SEPP (British spellings):

    “[T]he global climate is changing, and has always been changing. The earth has warmed by 1C over the last 150 years. That is not the issue. The issue is whether the human emissions of carbon dioxide since 1850 are heralding an imminent and certain global climate catastrophe that could be averted by engineering projects.”
    To which SEPP would add…or require drastic national and international energy policy restricting the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2). Kelly goes on to state:

    “This is the most complete book to date that takes a critical look across the whole of the recent history of climate change as science, as input to policy, and as a driver of far-reaching societal change. My own interest in the subject starts from the totally unrealistic engineering outcomes being assumed and implied by a decarbonisation of the world economy by 2050, and even a simplistic attempt to undertake a cost-benefit analysis of the decarbonisation project as far as engineering and technology will make a difference. The scale of the investment for the unknowability of the measureable outcomes implied by ‘solving the climate change problem’ represents hubris of the grandest order.

    “The opportunity costs dwarf any possible outcomes. If one then goes back into the ‘post-modern science’ from which the imperative to decarbonise originates, several cans of worms are waiting. I fear that when this whole enterprise collapses, as certainly as the tulip bubble evaporated in 1637, there will be a backlash against trust in science that will herald a dark age in which scientists are routinely regarded as untrustworthy shamans. My concern is that the integrity of science is under great threat and that my own subject, engineering, will get caught in the backlash, even though engineers have been among the most vociferous critics of the projects of imminent global catastrophe caused by humans. It is the human desires for comfort, secure and variable food, health, education, mobility, communications, defence and other fruits of the industrial revolution that lead to the scale of human emissions of carbon dioxide, and only a deep and dramatic curtailment of these desires by everyone, but especially those living in the developed countries, will reduce carbon emissions in the next 30 years.” [Boldface added.]

    Being able to distinguish between valuable science and the claims of untrustworthy shamans is a goal of SEPP, and TWTW, no matter how imperfectly accomplished. See link under Challenging the Orthodoxy.

    Distinguished Opposition: TWTW is privileged to receive excellent criticism of its expressed views – criticism which supports the concept that human emissions of CO2 are causing significant climate change, which eventually will be dire. Physicist Donald Rapp is one such critic. He has written several accomplished books on the subject especially Assessing Climate Change: Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance, which is now in its third edition. Rapp believes that we have sufficient data that rising CO2 produces warming. Even though the warming is “not susceptible to quantitative evaluation, could be significant, and we need to try our best to reduce emissions.” Rapp also finds that the data supporting the theory that climate is governed by galactic cosmic rays “are sparse and unconvincing. This might be a subordinate effect.”

    It is vital goal of SEPP to separate the views expressed by scientists such as Rapp from those by what Kelly calls “untrustworthy shamans.” To separate natural variation from human influence, including CO2 emissions, we need more data on what happens following an El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, such the one occurring now. Given the sparse nature of surface data, and the relocation of instrumentation to urbanizing areas especially airports, it is unlikely that the influence of CO2 can be separated from the influence of urbanization in the surface data. That is one reason TWTW emphasizes the far more comprehensive satellite data.

    Tropical Hot Spot: Last week’s TWTW covered a paper by James Wallace, John Christy, and Joseph D’Aleo stating that, based on statistical analysis, if the ENSO effect is removed from over 50 years of balloon data, the claimed tropical hot spot cannot be found – pronounced warming trends centered at about 10 km (33,000 feet) over the tropics. As described in TWTW, this hot spot was featured in the EPA Endangerment Finding (EF) and in 1996 Assessment Report (AR-2) of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

    On the ICECAP web site, which featured the paper, several commentators claimed that the hot spot was not critical to the EPA’s endangerment finding. The authors of the paper addressed these claims. The new claim of insignificant is amusing. The advocates are in effect stating that the attorneys for the EPA convinced the US Federal Court of Appeals that its endangerment finding is significant science using so-called evidence considered trivial? See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy.

    Administration’s Power Plan in Court: This week the US Court of Appeals of the District Columbia Circuit heard arguments on the administration’s power plan, called the “clean power plan”, that requires significant change in the generation of electrical power, including from existing power plants. The court is the same one, but somewhat reconstituted, that heard the arguments for EPA’s endangerment finding.

    In a dramatic change in procedure, the entire court heard the arguments. Usually, a three-judge panel first hears the arguments and issues a decision. The losing side may appeal to have the entire court hear the arguments, which the court may or may not grant. The hearing is important for the administration because its power plan will not have the force of law without court approval, regardless of how many international agreements Mr. Obama may sign, if he does not receive approval from the US Senate for a treaty. The Senate does not seem inclined to grant treaty status to Mr. Obama’s agreements.

    The administration seems to be dismissing the importance of these proceedings or the so-called environmental benefits of the power plan. As stated by attorney Sam Kazman of CEI:

    “At a March 22 congressional hearing, one congressman stated: ‘I don’t understand–if it doesn’t have an impact on climate change around the world, why are we subjecting our hard working taxpayers and men and women in the coal fields to something that has no benefit?’

    “McCarthy’s answer: ‘We see it as having had enormous benefit in showing sort of domestic leadership as well as garnering support around the country for the agreement we reached in Paris.’

    “But demonstrating leadership is not the law’s goal; the underlying statute, after all, is the Clean Air Act, not the Clean Air Politics Act.”

    The lead attorneys against the power plan include the Attorney Generals for West Virginia and Texas, Patrick Morrisey and Ken Paxton, respectively. A lead attorney in making constitutional arguments is Lawrence Tribe, Law Professor at Harvard and a liberal icon. The transcriptions of the oral arguments have not been posted as of October 1, and will be discussed in an upcoming TWTW.

    At a briefing prior to the court hearing, Paxton and Morrisey explained why they sued. They consider the administration’s plan to be a power grab that is in violation of the Constitution, has no basis in law, and violates the Clean Air Act. The fundamental, practical issues include that the administration’s actions will dramatically raise utility rates, have a negative effect on the economy, and that key pollutants are regulated under different regulations. These pollutants are called criteria pollutants, specified in the law.

    The administration of public utilities is the responsibility of the several states, and the states are responsible for delivering reliable electricity, which wind and solar generation are not. Further, it is a myth that the power plan gives the states flexibility. The attorneys stated that the law is so specified that the EPA cannot take the endangerment finding, which applied to mobile sources of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide), mostly from automobiles and trucks, and apply it to stationary sources such as coal-fired power plants.

    When asked by an attendee if the attorneys considered addressing the scientific foundations of the endangerment finding, which the questioner considered were imploding, the attorneys stated that the legal foundation is so strong, that they emphasized that. The number of pages that can be filed is very limited. According to the attorneys, if the EPA can regulate power plants, then it will be pipelines, the electrical grid, and all critical elements of power production in the US.

    According to the attorneys, it is unlikely the Supreme Court will take up the case until the fall of 2017, if ever. See Articles # 1 and # 2 links under The Administration’s Plan – Independent Analysis and The Administration’s Plan – Push-Back

    Reliable Electricity – South Australia: The state of South Australia is more dependent on wind and solar than any other state in Australia. It has about 1,580 MW installed wind capacity. Shortly after 1500 (local time) on September 28, wind energy production went to zero and South Australia suffered from a state-wide black out. The finger-pointing continues. As Paul Homewood (based in England) relates:

    “SA’s 18 wind farms have a combined (notional) capacity of 1,580MW.

    On 28 September (aka ‘Black Wednesday’), as the wind picked up, output surges by around 900MW, from a trifling 300MW (or 19% of installed capacity) to around 1,200MW.

    As we explain below, electricity grids were never designed to tolerate that kind of chaos, but it’s what occurs in the hour before the collapse that matters.

    From a peak near 1,200MW, there are drops and surges in output of around 250-300MW (equivalent to having the Pelican Point Combined Cycle Gas plant switched on and off in an instant).

    At about 2:30pm there is an almost instantaneous drop of 150MW (1,050 to 900MW), followed by a rapid surge of around 250MW, to hit a momentary peak of about 1,150MW.

    Then, in the instant before the blackout, wind power output plummets to around 890MW: a grid killing collapse of 260MW, that occurs in a matter of minutes (it’s all happened before, as we detail below). That 260MW collapse was the deliberate result of an automatic shutdown of the wind farms based in SA’s mid-North, located in the path of the storm front: the final and total collapse in SA’s power supply follows immediately thereafter.”

    Will those who advocated wind production stand up? See links under Questioning Green Elsewhere and Energy Issues – Non-US

    Carbon Taxes: A special interest group called R-Street has called for a carbon tax in the US, with the revenues distributed to the general population. If carbon dioxide is causing harm, doubtful, then taxing it would be the most efficient way of addressing it, according to many economists. However, tax history calls this view of efficiency into question.

    The 100-plus year history of the modern US income tax is littered with dishonored promises. One party or the other has used the tax code to give favors to special interests. President Reagan thought he had a deal with the Democratic Congress to simplify the tax code and to cut spending. The code was simplified by eliminating special tax breaks and reducing tax rates, temporarily. Spending cuts were illusionary. Soon thereafter, special tax breaks appeared, for example, the wind power production tax credit.

    Also, special taxes are dishonored. The federal highway tax is a user tax to build highways. But significant funds (about 25%) are diverted for sound barriers, bicycle trails, and planning for public transit, which do not pay these taxes.

    Given this history, there is no logical reason to assume that the revenue from a carbon tax will be distributed as claimed.

    In an effective democracy, politicians must be held accountable for their actions. Visibility is an advantage of the income tax. The public can hold those in government accountable, however imperfectly. Invisibility is a severe disadvantage of a carbon tax. Politicians who enact and manipulate the tax will hide behind public utilities, blaming utilities for the punitive effects of political actions. See links under Cap-and-Trade and Carbon Taxes.

    Oil Prices: An article in the Wall Street Journal has an excellent graph of estimated break-even prices for oil production in various areas of the globe, which is reproduced by the Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF). Although not stated, usually these cost estimates include capital costs plus a small profit.

    Whether or not a new OPEC agreement holds up, it is becoming evident that US oil production from shale has changed the thinking of the Saudis that it can continue to undercut the US producers, as it did in the 1980s. The petro-states are losing too much money needed for government budgets.

    Assuming the estimate of $40 to $65 per barrel for shale holds, and world prices fall into this range, then the Middle-east and Russia will make significant profits, Venezuela and Nigeria lower profits, Brazil and Angola with deep-water ocean production will become marginal producers, and Canadian Oil Sands will be out in the cold. The shale oil drillers are still improving their techniques, so what their eventual costs will be remains to be seen.

    The price estimates do not include Kazakhstan and the Gulf of Mexico. Kazakhstan will be delivering oil in the near future, break-even price unknown. Most of the deep-water production in the Gulf of Mexico is by private, closely-held companies that do not reveal their costs. There are some suggestions that the break-even costs are about $50 per bbl. See Article # 3 (without graphs) and links under Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?

    Comprehensive Models? With these developments, it is becoming clear that the idea of “peak oil” is off by many years. Since first proposed about 1970, this theory became an accepted “consensus” of some scientific organizations and those who built “state-of-the-art” mathematical models on it, predicting the world would run out of oil by the end of the 20th century

    One of the excuses made for the failure of these models is that the modelers did not know of oil extraction by unconventional means. In other words, the models were not comprehensive. It is becoming increasingly apparent that global climate models are not comprehensive as well.

    A government should not base policy on mathematical models that have not been validated. Even the experts cannot understand, or know, what may occur in the future. Speculation, no matter how mathematically precise is still speculation. See links under Questioning the Orthodoxy.

    Travel: Due to travel, there will be no TWTW on the weekend of October 15. The October 8 TWTW will be brief.

    Number of the Week: 45,185 feet (13,772 meters or 8.56 miles) According to the above mentioned article in the Wall Street Journal, a natural gas well was drilled in Ohio that is 26,641 feet (8120 m or 5.05 mi) deep and 18,544 feet (5652 m or 3.51 mi) long. It is not clear if the vertical section is directly vertical or angled, and the actual depth of the horizontal section is not given. Regardless of the exact depth, the drill (bottomhole) assembly, with its sensors and guidance system, operated at high pressures and temperatures. The development of these miniaturized sensors and guidance systems is a significant accomplishment by the scientists and engineers who did so. See Article # 3.


    Science: Is the Sun Rising?

    Solar Arctic-Mediated Climate Variation on Multidecadal to Centennial Timescales: Empirical Evidence, Mechanistic Explanation, and Testable Consequences
    By Willie W.-H. Soon, Physical Geography, May 15, 2013…

    Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?

    Test Driving the Solar Notch-Delay Model
    Guest essay by David Archibald, WUWT, Oct 1, 2014…

    Suppressing Scientific Inquiry – The Witch Hunt

    AGU Rejects #ExxonKnew Agenda, Email shows more implosions from within
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Sep 26, 2016…

    Suppressing Scientific Inquiry – The Witch Hunt – Push-Back

    Testimony of Ronald Rotunda, Fowler School of Law, Chapman University
    US House Committee on Science, Space, & Technology on September 14, 2016…

    Senate Dem Report Attacking EPA Critics Traced to Green Pressure Group
    Document scrubbed of traces to environmentalist group after Free Beacon inquiries
    By Lachlan Markay, Washington Free Beacon, Sep 28, 2016…

    The First Climate Change RICO Lawsuit is Filed by Editor
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Sep 27, 2016…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

    Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming
    The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus
    By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, NIPCC, Nov 23, 2015
    Download with no charge…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science
    Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2013…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts
    Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2014…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy

    Hubris: The Troubling Science, Economics and Politics of Climate Change
    By Michael Kelly FRS, FREng, Emeritus Prince Philip Professor of Technology, University of Cambridge, GWPF, Sep 30, 2016
    Review of book by Michael Hart…

    The Importance of the Tropical Hot Spot to EPA’s Endangerment Finding
    By James Wallace, ICECAP, Sep 30, 2016…

    A Devastating Reassessment of Alarmist Climate Science
    By Alan Carlin, Carlin Economics and Science, Sep 29, 2016…

    Old Tactics Revived as Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) Deception Fails. An Open Letter to an Open Letter
    Guest Opinion: Dr. Tim Ball, WUWT, Sep 24, 2016…

    Political Science: A Reply to the 375 Concerned Members of the National Academy of Sciences
    By Christopher Monckton of Brenchley, William M. Briggs, David R. Legates, Anthony Lupo, Istvan Marko, Dennis Mitchell, & Willie Soon, Breitbart, Sep 25, 2016…

    Alarmist Potsdam Climate Scientist Stefan Rahmstorf Extends “Incredible String Of Failures”
    Incredible String of Failures by Rahmstorf Continues: New Study Finds no Robust Relationship Between Shrinking Sea Ice and European Cold Waves
    By Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt (German text translated/edited by P Gosselin), No Tricks Zone, Sep 30, 2016…

    Defending the Orthodoxy

    Why Obama Is Right on Clean Energy
    By William Ruckelshaus and William Reilly, NYT, Sep 25, 2016 [H/t Timothy Wise]…
    [SEPP Comment: Mr. Ruckelshaus banned DDT, claiming it may cause cancer in humans, without evidence. Thus, he began a tradition of EPA political popular bans, without evidence.]

    Questioning the Orthodoxy

    What Ever Happened to Peak Oil?
    By Bill Murray & Carl M. Cannon, Real Clear Politics, Sep 28, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Do not base policy on mathematical models that have not been validated. Even the experts cannot understand, or know, what may occur in the future. Speculation, no matter how mathematically precise is still speculation.]

    Peak Oil Consensus 2008: Lesson for ‘Settled’ Climate Science
    By Robert Bradley Jr., Master Resource, Sep 29, 2016…

    92% in unhealthy air? Another example of a boy who cries wolf
    By Václav Klaus, Czech ex-president, with comments by Luboš Motl, The Reference Frame, Sep 28, 2016…

    Are The Promoters Of Global Warming ‘Catastrophe’ The True Deniers?
    By John Tamny Forbes, Sep 25, 2016…

    World Climate Measured in Foreign-Hype Decrees
    By Anthony J. Sadar, American Thinker, Sep 29, 2016…

    The polar bear problem no one will talk about – the downside to large populations
    By Susan Crockford, Polar Bear Science, Sep 28, 2016…

    After Paris!

    Climate change agreement crosses threshold
    By Staff Writers, WNN, Sep 22, 2016…

    Europe has a chance to be “out” when Paris comes to force
    By Luboš Motl, The Reference Frame, Sep 24, 2016…

    Southeast Asian Nations Plan Huge Expansion Of Fossil Fuel Economy
    By John Constable, GWPF, Sep 26, 2016…

    The Administration’s Plan

    Judges probe legality of Obama’s climate rule
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Sep 27, 2016…

    The Administration’s Plan – Independent Analysis

    Both sides optimistic on EPA climate rule case
    By Timothy Cama, and Devin Henry, The Hill, Sep 28, 2016…

    Obama’s climate legacy on trial
    By John Siciliano, Washington Examiner, Sep 25, 2016…

    The Administration’s Plan – Push-Back

    It’s judgment day for the EPA’s clean power plan, America
    By C. Boyden Gray, Sam Kazman, Fox News, Sep 27, 2016…

    Obama’s climate change agenda faces crucial court hearing today
    By Joseph Smith, American Thinker, Sep 27, 2016…

    Seeking a Common Ground

    The Limits of Knowledge and the Climate Change Debate
    By Brian Berry, Jayshree Bihari, and Euel Elliott, Cato Journal, Via GWPF, Sep 24, 2016…
    Link to paper: The Limits of Knowledge and the Climate Change Debate…

    Review of Recent Scientific Papers by CO2 Science

    Barley Protein Production in a CO2-Enriched and Warmer World
    Ingvordsen, C.H., Gislum, R., Jorgensen, J.R., Mikkelsen, T.N., Stockmarr, A. and Jorgensen, R.B. 2016. Grain protein concentration and harvestable protein under future climate conditions. A study of 108 spring barley accessions. Journal of Experimental Biology 67: 2151-2158. Sep 29, 2016…

    Solar Activity Modulates the Frequency of Central European Floods
    Czymzik, M., Muscheler, R. and Brauer, A. 2016. Solar modulation of flood frequency in central Europe during spring and summer on inter-annual to multi-centennial timescales. Climate of the Past 12: 799-805. Sep 28, 2016…

    A New Refutation of Dangerous CO2-Induced Global Warming
    Gervais, R. 2016. Anthropogenic CO2 warming challenged by 60-year cycle. Earth-Science Reviews 155: 129-135. Sep 27, 2016…
    “And so it is that real-world data-based refutations of unsubstantiated climate-alarmist claims of impending catastrophic climatic consequences — which they associate with the burning of fossil fuels — continue to grow in number and refute the baseless climate-alarmist contentions, as ever more real-world observations that suggest just the opposite continue to find their way into the peer-reviewed scientific literature. And in light of these facts, Gervais concludes that ‘on inspection of a risk of anthropogenic warming thus toned down, a change of paradigm which highlights a benefit for mankind related to the increase of plant feeding and crop yields by enhanced CO2 photosynthesis is suggested.’”

    Juvenile Antarctic Rockcod Growing Up in CO2-Acidified Seawater
    Davis, B.E., Miller, N.A., Flynn, E.E. and Todgham, A.E. 2016. Juvenile Antarctic rockcod (Trematomus bernacchii) are physiologically robust to CO2-acidified seawater. Journal of Experimental Biology 219: 1203-1213. Sep 26, 2016…

    Model Issues

    40 Earths: NCAR’s Large Ensemble reveals staggering climate variability
    Data set an instant hit with climate and Earth system researchers
    By Staff Writers, NCAR/UCAR Atmos News, Sep 29, 2016…
    Link to article: The Community Earth System Model (CESM) Large Ensemble Project: A Community Resource for Studying Climate Change in the Presence of Internal Climate Variability
    By J.E. Kay, et al. AMS, Aug 2015…
    “We gave the temperature in the atmosphere the tiniest tickle in the model — you could never measure it — and the resulting diversity of climate projections is astounding,” Deser said. “It’s been really eye-opening for people.”
    [SEPP Comment: Pick the model that fits your needs!]

    Measurement Issues – Energy Flow

    Errors in Estimating Earth’s No-Atmosphere Average Temperature
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Sep 27, 2016…

    Changing Weather

    No big shift in U.S. flood patterns despite climate change: study
    By Ian Simpson, Reuters, Sep 28, 2016…

    Matthew to Arrive 4,000 days after Last Major Hurricane
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Sep 29, 2016…

    Tropical Storms Can Strengthen Over Land But Be Careful With Brown Ocean Claims
    By Marshall Shepherd, Sep 24, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…

    Coldest Perth September recorded in 120 years of records (must be climate change)
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Oct 1, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Are records upside-down in Australia?]

    A Normal Summer
    By Cliff Mass, Weather Blog, Sep 24, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Normal over the western U.S.]

    A Weakening BLOB
    By Cliff Mass, Weather Blog, Oct 1, 2016…

    Changing Climate

    Ancient global cooling gave rise to modern ecosystems
    Sea surface temperatures dipped dramatically during a period from 7 million to 5.4 million years ago, a time of massive global ecological change.
    Press Release, Brown University, Sep 26, 2016…

    Changing Seas

    Latest Momentous Discovery – The “Parched” Earth Is Getting Wetter!
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Sep 30, 2016
    [SEPP Comment: Has sea level rise been overestimated by alarmists?]

    Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

    Arctic Ice Extent Recovering At Record Pace
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Sep 29, 2016

    Lowering Standards

    Arctic Melting Defies Scientists
    By Alex Kirby, EcoWatch, Sep 29, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…
    “Dramatic and unprecedented warming in the Arctic is driving sea level rise, affecting weather patterns around the world and may trigger even more changes in the climate system.
    “The rate of change is challenging the current scientific capacity to monitor and predict what is becoming a journey into uncharted territory.”
    “The Arctic is a principal, global driver of the climate system and is undergoing an unprecedented rate of change with consequences far beyond its boundaries,”
    [SEPP Comment: From the UN World Meteorological Organization and David Grimes, its president!]

    Communicating Better to the Public – Exaggerate, or be Vague?

    Climate Exaggeration is Backfiring
    By Robert Bradley Jr. Forbes, Sep 23, 2016…

    How to make climate graphs look scary — a reply to XKCD
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Sep 25, 2016…

    It’s Official: Hydropower Is Dirty Energy
    By Gary Wockner, EcoWatch, Sep 30, 2016 [H/t Climate Etc.]…
    Link to WP article: Reservoirs are a major source of global greenhouse gases, scientists say
    By Chris Mooney, Washington Post, Sep 28, 2016…
    “Correction: A prior title of this article suggested that methane emissions from reservoirs are a “key new source of greenhouse gases.” In fact, scientific budgets of global methane emissions have included reservoir emissions in the category of lakes and rivers, according to Harrison. The new research, however, does suggest that reservoir emissions may have been underestimated in such budgets.”
    [SEPP Comment: The author of “River Warrior” did not give links to the paper, which may be as much an exaggeration on the presumed influence on methane as the presumed influence of methane is on global temperatures.]

    Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.

    Nature paper pushes wild exaggeration of 7-13C “climate sensitivity”! Even Gavin Schmidt calls them out.
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Sep 27, 2016…
    Link to paper: Evolution of global temperature over the past two million years
    By Carolyn W. Snyder, Nature, Sep 26, 2016…
    “(Did she study climate science by watching Al Gore?)”

    Study: Earth’s roughly warmest in about 100,000 years
    By Seth Borenstein, AP, Sep 26, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…
    [SEPP Comment: See link immediately above;]

    Spiegel: Experts Slam Proclamations Of An Anthropocene As “Political”… “Unscientific”…”Science Sloganeering”!
    By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Sep 28, 2016…

    In Miami, Green Party’s Jill Stein warns of ‘climate meltdown
    By David Smiley, Miami Herald, Sep 30, 2016…

    Communicating Better to the Public – Do a Poll?

    Despite record hottest year even a loaded vague climate survey shows 61% don’t agree with experts
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Sep 26, 2016…

    Questioning European Green

    Renewable Energy Poses Growing Security Risk, GWPF Warns
    By Staff Writers, GWPF, Sep 29, 2016…
    Link to paper: UK Energy Security: Myth and Reality
    By Philipp Mueller, GWPF, 2014…

    Are We Heading for Blackout Britain?
    By Staff writers, Centre for Policy Studies, Sep 29, 2016…

    Questioning Green Elsewhere

    Wind Power, Eating the Seed Corn
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Sep 30, 2016…

    Renewables shift brings threat to power supply
    By Brian Robins, Sydney Morning Herald, Sep 15, 2016…

    South Australia pays the price for heavy reliance on renewable energy
    By Brian Robins, Sydney Morning Herald, Sep 28, 2016 [H/t GWPF]…

    The South Australian black out — A grid on the edge. There were warnings that renewables made it vulnerable
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Sep 30, 2016…

    Ontario stops buying renewable energy
    By Anmar Frangoul, CNBC, Sep 28, 2016…

    The Political Games Continue

    Republicans Demand PROOF From Obama That Global Warming Is A National Security Threat
    By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller, Sep 26, 2016…

    Cap-and-Trade and Carbon Taxes

    A carbon bargain for conservatives
    By Catrina Rorke, R Street, Sep 28, 2016…

    The carbon tax is not just political; it’s ineffective, too
    By Benjamin Zycher, The Hill, Sep 28, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: No doubt an edict eliminating gasoline-powered automobiles and trucks would appease many fossil fuel opponents and bring claims of “green jobs” being created, without thought of economic consequences. Total control is their goal.]

    The Real Problem with Carbon Taxes
    By Bruce Everett, CO2 Coalition, Sep 28, 2016…
    Link to full essay: (5 pages)…
    “Economists have long recognized that taxation can be a useful means to discourage consumption if – and only if – there is a reason to do so. Without a clear and defined benefit, such taxes simply divert funds from consumers to the government. Regressive taxes, i.e., those that fall disproportionately on the middle class and the poor, reduce disposable income at a time when families are struggling to meet their needs. The issue is not can we impose a carbon tax, but why should we?”

    EU Lawmakers Divided on Post-2020 Emissions-Market Reform
    By Ewa Krukowska, Bloomberg, Sep 29, 2016…

    Subsidies and Mandates Forever

    Analysis: New York’s Clean Energy Standard could pad utility bills by $3.4B
    By Robert Walton, Utility Dive, Sep 29, 20126…
    Link to report: Green Overload: New York State’s Ratepayer-Zapping Renewable Energy Mandate
    By Kenneth Girardin and Annette Brocks, Empire Center, Sep 27, 2016…

    New York City Sets Ambitious Citywide Energy Storage Target
    By Sonal Pat4el, Power Mag, Sep 29, 2016…
    “New York City is aiming to have 100 MWh of energy storage by 2020 under an unprecedented target set by Mayor Bill de Blasio on September 23.”
    [SEPP Comment: How long would it run the city in a black-out – in seconds?]

    EPA and other Regulators on the March

    EPA Finalizes Two Rules to Reduce Use and Emissions of Potent Greenhouse Gases
    Press Release by Enesta Jones, EPA, Sep 26, 2016 [H/t Climate Depot]…

    Energy Issues – Non-US

    Change and Flexibility
    By Martin Livermore, The Scientific Alliance, Sep 30, 2016…

    Russia Slams Door on US LNG to Europe
    By Jane Collin, Energy Intelligence, Sep 2016…

    Engineering experts deliver warning on smart meter design
    By Diarmaid Williams, Power Engineering, Sep…

    Another Statewide Blackout: South Australia’s Wind Power Disaster Continues
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Sep 29, 2016

    Entire state of South Australia without electricity as storm hits
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Sep 28, 2016…

    The South Australian Statewide Blackout
    By Terence Cardwell, Australian Climate Sceptics, Oct 1, 2016…

    Entire state of South Australia has power black-out because of flawed climate change energy policy
    Guest essay by Larry Hamlin, WUWT, Sep 28, 2016…

    Fracking Scare Stories Condemned By UK Watchdog
    By Ben Webster, The Times, Via GWPF, Sep 26, 2016…

    Get drilling! Fracking ‘could save UK industry’, says boss at major refinery after first shipment of American shale gas arrives in Britain
    By Jack Doyle, Daily Mail, UK, Sep 27, 2016…

    Energy Issues — US

    FERC Adopts GMD Rule and Says Farewell to Tony Clark
    By Kennedy Maize, Power Mag, Sep 26, 2016…

    Tribal Consultation At Heart Of Pipeline Fight
    By Leigh Paterson, Inside Energy, Sep 23, 2016…

    Washington’s Control of Energy

    U.N. steps into Dakota oil pipeline fight
    By Daniel J. Graeber, Geneva, Switzerland (UPI), Sep 23, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Now the UN wants to dictate energy policy to Washington?]

    Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?

    Resilient U.S. Shale Firms Ready to Pump More Oil
    By Lynn Cook and Bradley Olson, The Wall Street Journal, Via GWPF, Sep 28, 2016…

    OPEC’s ‘truce on oil prices’ could be quickly shattered by more shale production
    By Patti Domm, CNBC, Sep 29, 2016…

    How Actual Nuts and Bolts Are Bringing Down Oil Prices
    Forget shale. There’s a broader – much more boring – technological revolution sweeping oil markets.
    By Tracy Alloway, Bloomberg, Sep 28, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Using some of the techniques being used in shale development.]

    Addicted to Oil: U.S. Gasoline Consumption is Higher than Ever
    By Lucas Davis, The Energy Collective, Sep 27, 2016…

    Return of King Coal?

    China stokes global coal growth
    By Beth Walker, China dialogue, Sep 23, 2016 [H/t GWPF]…

    China tells mines to raise thermal coal output again – sources
    By Kathy Chen, et al, Reuters, Sep 28, 2016…

    Oil Spills, Gas Leaks, etc. & Consequences

    Oil and gas wastewater is changing the Earth’s surface, study finds
    By Maria Gallucci, Yahoo, Sep 22, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…
    [SEPP Comment: Wastewater disposal wells are causing problems, which the reporter exaggerates.]

    Nuclear Energy and Fears

    Fourth Hongyanhe unit enters commercial operation
    By Staff Writers, WNN, Sep 20, 2016…

    Japan Kills Monju but Not Breeders
    By Thomas Overton, Power Mag, Sep 26, 2016…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind

    Hillary’s Solar Future Has a Bad Past
    By Robert Bradley, Master Resource, Sep 28, 2016…
    “Yet after 40 years of government plans and incentives, the U.S. is not halfway to Bill’s one-million goal.”

    Carbon Schemes

    Does carbon capture & storage have a future in the UK?
    By Roger Andrews, Energy Matters, Sep 28, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Review of a political document encouraging a policy headed for failure.]

    California Dreaming

    Millennial’s May Have to Delay Buying First Home
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Sep 27, 2016…
    “California regulators are establishing rules so that every home built by 2020 is a Zero Net Energy (ZNE) home. ZNE homes must not use more energy than they produce.”
    [SEPP Comment: If each home is a Zero Net Energy user, where does it get its energy from when needs it and where does the energy go when it produces too much?]

    Oh Mann!

    ‘Hide The Decline’ Unveiled: 50 Non-Hockey Stick Graphs Quash Modern ‘Global’ Warming Claims
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Sep 27, 2016…

    Environmental Industry

    The Next Environmental Scare?
    By Steven Hayward, Power Line, Sep 25, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Earth’s loss of O2?]

    Endangered species rule changed, angering environmental group
    By Lydia Wheeler, The Hill, Sep 26, 2016…

    Other Scientific News

    With solar storm in progress, regional impact forecasts set to begin
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Sep 29, 2016…

    Peat bogs in northern Alberta, Canada reveal decades of declining atmospheric Pb contamination
    By William Shotyk, et al. Geophysical Research Letters, Sep 27, 2016…

    Other News that May Be of Interest

    The Green Universe: A Vision
    By Freeman Dyson, New York Review of Books, Oct 13, 2016…

    The Faster a Planet Rotates, the Warmer its Average Temperature
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Sep 28, 2016…

    How to constrain the abuse of science by Federal agencies
    By David Wojick, Climate Etc. Sep 28, 2016…

    Prostitution caused by man-made global warming
    By Geoff Brown, Australian Climate Sceptics, Sep 27, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: According to US Rep. Barbara Lee (D, DC). Who has no vote.]

    Earth’s obliquity and temperature over the last 20,000 years
    By Anthony Watts, from Javier, WUWT, Sep 29, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: A cartoon.]

    Academic Absurdity of the Week: Fake Peer Reviews
    By Steven Hayward, Power Line,
    “The research team was able to influence the peer review process in one in four cases by throwing fake reviews into the mix, it said.” Sep 22, 2016…

    Climate change is all about walking on thin ice!
    By Staff Writers, Climate Change, Sep 21, 2016…
    The melting of the earth’s ice cover has already become a source of physical trauma. In Alaska, Inuits report an increase in accidents caused by walking on thin ice.
    From: “Climate Change and Human Health” Paul R. Epstein, M.D., M.P.H. The New England Journal of Medicine, 6 Oct 2005, Vol. 353 No. 14

    1. ‘Clean Power’ Plays and the Last Stand for Federalism
    What will be left of our constitutional order if the EPA’s plan passes judicial muster?
    By David B. Rivkin, Jr. and Andrew M. Grossman, WSJ, Sep 25, 2016…

    These Constitutional attorneys state:
    “After Congress turned down President Obama’s request to enact a law regulating power plants’ greenhouse-gas emissions, the Environmental Protection Agency turned to the states—not with a request, but with instructions to carry out the president’s energy policy. The EPA’s “Clean Power Plan” now faces the scrutiny of the nation’s chief regulatory review court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

    “If the Constitution’s federalism is to endure, the Clean Power Plan must be struck down.

    “The Constitution establishes a federal government of limited and enumerated powers while the states retain a plenary “police power,” subject only to the specific limitations of federal law. This is what Justice Anthony Kennedy called the Constitution’s “genius”: It “split the atom of sovereignty” to ensure accountability when meeting both local and national concerns, while fostering rivalry between the two levels to curb excessive political ambition that might threaten liberty.

    “Only in recent decades did politicians learn how to realize their ambitions through collusion. The federal government now entices states with transfer payments to establish and administer social-welfare programs. And, in schemes that the courts describe as “cooperative federalism,” it offers states the choice to regulate their citizens according to federal dictates, as an alternative to the feds regulating directly and having states get out of the way.

    “Even these approaches were not enough for the Obama administration to cajole the states to carry out its energy agenda. So it resolved to obliterate one of the last vestiges of the Constitution’s vertical separation of powers: the bar on federal commandeering of the states and their officials to carry out federal policy.

    “The Clean Power Plan is enormously complicated, but its overall approach is straightforward. Previous emissions regulations have focused on reducing emissions from particular facilities, but this one relies on shifting electricity generation from disfavored facilities (coal-fired power plants) to those the EPA prefers (natural gas and renewables). The EPA then determined what, in its view, is the maximum amount of such shifting that each of the nation’s regional electric grids could possibly accommodate and calculated the emissions reductions.

    “Parcel those figures out by state, factor in additional reductions due to estimated efficiency improvements at older plants, and the result is state-specific reduction targets. The states can elect to achieve those targets themselves—or, if they decline, the EPA will do it for them. “Textbook cooperative federalism,” says the EPA.

    “Not quite. Whether or not the states choose to implement the plan directly, it leaves them no choice but to carry out the EPA’s federal climate policy. That’s because the EPA can destroy but not create. It can regulate emissions of existing facilities, but it lacks the legal authority to facilitate the construction and integration of new power sources, which is ultimately the only way to achieve the plan’s aggressive targets.

    “That duty falls to the states, which the plan depends upon to carry out what the EPA calls their “responsibility to maintain a reliable electric system.” Doing nothing, as in the cooperative federalism scenario, is not an option.

    “So this is how the plan works: The EPA pushes coal-fired plants off the grid, and then counts on the states to ensure that the resulting reductions in capacity are matched by increases in EPA-preferred forms of power generation. State agencies will have to be involved in decommissioning coal-fired plants, addressing replacement capacity—like wind turbines and solar arrays—addressing transmission and integration issues, and undertaking all manner of related regulatory proceedings. All this to carry out federal policy.

    “The Clean Power Plan implicates every evil associated with unconstitutional commandeering. It dragoons states into administering federal law, irrespective of their citizens’ views. It destroys accountability, by directing the brunt of public disapproval for increased electricity costs and lost jobs onto state officials, when the federal government deserves the blame. And it subverts the horizontal separation of powers, by allowing the executive branch to act where Congress has refused to legislate.

    “One can only wonder what will be left of our constitutional order if the plan passes judicial muster.

    “The federal government would no longer be a government of limited powers, but instead be able to compel the states to do its bidding in any area. The states, in turn, would be reduced to puppets of a federal ventriloquist, carrying out the dirty work for which federal actors wish to avoid accountability. And the federal executive, in many instances, could effectively create new law by working through the states, free of the need to win over Congress.

    “So it is difficult to imagine a U.S. where the Clean Power Plan is the law of the land. It would not be the same country, or the same Constitution, that Americans have enjoyed all these years.”

    2. The ‘Clean Power’ Putsch
    A watershed case about democratic consent and the separation of powers.
    Editorial, WSJ, Sep 25, 2016…

    The Editorial states:
    “In the American system of cooperative federalism, the federal government is supreme and can pre-empt state laws, and it often does. The EPA has the power, for example, to impose efficiency improvements or air-quality standards on existing power plants. But with the CPP it is stretching this power to unprecedented levels and commandeering state resources.

    “At the heart of cooperative federalism is the right of refusal—states must retain the power to opt out of any federal scheme. If that scheme is grounded in a law passed by Congress, the feds can take over and regulate themselves. In this case the EPA has no authority to do anything of the kind.

    “Even if the CPP explicitly banned coal-fired power, the EPA cannot mandate that states switch to solar panels and wind turbines. The agency can destroy but it cannot create. Here the EPA is expecting that states will undertake the extensive and costly preparation and regulation to compensate for lost carbon power because they have no other choice to keep the lights on. The EPA is happy to let states take responsibility for problems the EPA is creating.

    The Supreme Court has often policed and struck down such commandeering. In 1992’s New York v. United States, the High Court invalidated a command to states related to low-level radioactive waste, while 1997’s Printz v. United States overturned a provision on background checks for gun purchasers. As recently as the ObamaCare cases of 2012, the Court ruled that the law’s Medicaid expansion was an unconstitutionally coercive “gun to the head” and gave states the right to opt out.

    The CPP is far more bullying than any of these examples. Redesigning state-based energy systems to replace fossil fuels is a capital-intensive and decades-long transition, to the extent it is possible. It requires power-plant retirements and upgrades, restructuring transmission lines, building new natural-gas pipelines. States must avoid blackouts and service disruptions to protect public safety and the economy.

    The EPA says the CPP is run-of-the-mill pollution regulation, but Mr. Obama held an East Room ceremony calling it historic and the rule is the heart of the U.S. commitment to the Paris climate accord. Both claims can’t be true. The EPA also claims the CPP “shows a deep respect for states’ sovereignty by giving them the opportunity to design an emissions-reduction plan that makes sense for their citizens.” In other words, as long as they are willing to suffer, they can suffer in their own way.

    Climate change has become religious faith on the left, and Mr. Obama and Senate Democrats have packed the D.C. Circuit with liberals precisely to bounce cases like this one. The court is hearing West Virginia v. EPA en banc because of its extraordinary importance, and the 10-member panel is stocked with more liberals than conservatives. But liberal judges who care about the rule of law should also worry about the danger to the constitutional order and democratic consent from the EPA’s breathtaking power grab.

    3. Two Years Into Oil Slump, U.S. Shale Firms Are Ready to Pump More
    Shale industry has proved resilient despite low prices thanks to cost cuts, efficiency improvements
    By Lynn Cook and Bradley Olson, WSJ, Sep 27, 2016…

    SUMMARY: The reporters state:
    “When oil prices began to plunge two years ago due to a global glut of crude, experts predicted U.S. shale producers would be the losers of the resulting shakeout.

    “But the American companies that revolutionized the oil and gas business with hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling are surviving the carnage largely unbowed.

    “Though the collapse in prices caused a wave of bankruptcies, total U.S. oil production has only fallen by about 535,000 barrels a day so far this year compared with 2015, when it averaged 9.4 million barrels, according to the latest federal data.

    “As the oil markets ponder where production will resume when prices pick back up, one clear answer has emerged: America. Goldman Sachs forecasts the U.S. will be pumping an additional 600,000 to 700,000 barrels of oil a day by the end of next year—making up for every drop lost in the bust.

    “Few predicted that in the fall of 2014, when Saudi Arabia signaled that it wouldn’t curb its output to put a floor under crude prices. Oil pundits concluded that a brutal culling would force higher-cost players known as marginal producers—a group that includes shale drillers—out of the market.

    “But the greatest consequence of the Saudi decision and subsequent price drop is that it has delayed costly oil megaprojects, from deep-water platforms off Angola to oil-sands mines in Canada.

    “’The U.S. isn’t the marginal barrel but the most flexible,’ said R.T. Dukes, an analyst at Wood Mackenzie. ‘We’ll be the fastest to snap back.’

    “More than 100 North American energy producers have declared bankruptcy during this downturn, but even companies working through chapter 11 keep pumping oil and gas. Many exit bankruptcy stronger thanks to a balance sheet that has been wiped clean. SandRidge Energy Inc., which filed in May, will exit next month after erasing nearly $3.7 billion in debt.

    “Many shale operators are still struggling at current prices, drilling at a loss and tapping Wall Street for new infusions of cash. But the strongest producers, including EOG Resources Inc. and Continental Resources Inc., soon will be able to generate enough money to pay for new investments and dividends—as well as boost production—even at low prices, analysts say.

    “A big reason U.S. oil production has been so resilient is that U.S. producers found ways to cut costs and enhance efficiencies during the lean years. Those innovations are now poised to propel the industry’s resurrection.

    “In May, Halliburton Co. helped tap the longest shale well on record—26,641 feet deep and another 18,544 feet long—for Eclipse Resources Corp. in Ohio, 130 miles south of Cleveland.

    That well was fracked—the process of injecting water, chemicals and sand to coax out oil and gas—an extraordinary 124 times. Typical shale wells are fracked between 30 and 40 times, up from just nine fracks in 2011 at the start of the oil boom, according to Drillinginfo, a data provider for the energy industry.

    To put that engineering feat in Manhattan perspective, that is equivalent to burrowing down to the depth of 15 World Trade Centers at One World Trade Center, turning 90 degrees and drilling underground 3.5 miles to Grand Central station. Eclipse saved 30% by supersizing the well, said Chief Operating Officer Tom Liberatore


    The Week That Was: 2016-09-03 (September 3, 2016)
    Brought to You by The Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Quote of the Week.
    “If you can’t explain it simply, you don’t understand it well enough.” – Albert Einstein

    Number of the Week: Up 18.6%

    By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Did Obama Sign? What? There were reports speculating that U.S. President Obama and Chinese President Xi Junping would officially sign the Paris Climate Treaty (Agreement) when they met on September 3, ahead of the G-20 economic meeting in Hangzhou, China. As of midnight US Eastern Daylight Time on September 3, noon Hangzhou daylight time on September 4, there were no official reports that such a formal signing had taken place. Several news reports stated that both groups announced ratification of the treaty. However, there may be a language problem. According to the Constitution of the US, the President cannot ratify a treaty, ratification requires approval of two-thirds of the US Senate. In closing hours of the Paris Conference of Parties (COP-21) ending December 12, 2015, the US delegation insisted on changing the document so it would not appear to be a treaty but a non-binding agreement. No doubt, there will be several interpretations of the theater taking place in Hangzhou. It may be another version of theater dating back to the period of the Six Dynasties. See links under After Paris!

    The Balance Game: Writing in Climate Etc., global climate model commentator Nic Lewis addresses the recent claims that human influence on global warming/climate change started about 180 years ago, about 1830. The claims are based on very scanty data and use climate models that have not been validated. [Please note the correction at the end of his comments.]

    Very interesting is the statement by Lewis before the correction. “Ironically, should the study’s finding of anthropogenic warming starting as early as circa the 1830s be correct, it would imply that anthropogenic aerosol forcing is weaker than estimated in IPCC AR5, and therefore that observational estimates of climate sensitivity (both transient and equilibrium) based on AR5 forcing values need to be revised downwards. That is because total anthropogenic forcing would only have become positive enough to have had any measurable impact on temperatures in the 1830s if AR5 best estimates significantly overstate the strength of anthropogenic aerosol forcing.”

    The statement highlights flaws in what the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its followers, such as the EPA, offer as proof that human emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) are causing unprecedented and dangerous global warming. The report discussed is the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5, 2013). The models simultaneously calculate possible warming influence of CO2 and the possible cooling influence of aerosols (fine liquid droplets or particles suspended in the atmosphere). Aerosols can be natural or human caused. Systematic measurement did not begin until the late 1970s when “the first satellite instrument capable of crudely monitoring aerosol optical depth from space—the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)—retrieved optical depth from measurements in the visible and near-infrared spectrum, beginning in the late 1970s.” As with satellite measurements of global atmospheric temperatures going back to December 1978, anything earlier is pure guesswork.

    Further, the calculation procedure itself is suspect. As explained in the Summary for Policymakers, the models work only if both natural and human forcings are used. They do not work using only anthropogenic (human) forcings. However, even assuming that the numbers used are appropriate, the procedure does not establish human cause. The procedure has been called circular reasoning or tautology. The procedure, itself, can lead to an unlimited number of solutions, not a finite range of solutions.

    For example, assume A plus B is equal to 10. There is no unique solution to A, without first determining a solution to B. In fact, the value of A may be positive or negative, yet fit the equation, depending on the value of B. Trying to trace influence of CO2 and aerosols on temperatures prior to solid measurements of both is a similar exercise with unlimited solutions. See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy, Defending the Orthodoxy and Measurement Issues — Atmosphere

    Arctic Changes: The internet web site,, picked up on a paper indicating rapid change in Arctic sea ice related to Dansgaard-Oeschger (D/O) Events over the past 90,000 years. D/O events are described as rapid warming followed by gradual cooling. The strongest evidence has been from Greenland ice cores. The D/O events have been independently linked to Heinrich events [by Gerard Bond], which are demonstrated by deposits of rock mass on the bottom of the North Atlantic. When the ice sheets scraped the earth, they picked-up the rock mass and carried it to the sea where large sections broke-off forming icebergs. When melting, the icebergs deposited the rock mass originating on the continent on the floor of the North Atlantic.

    According to the new paper by Hoff, et al., the researchers obtained a marine sediment core near the Faroe Islands, in the Nordic seas. The researchers examined single celled algae, called diatoms, in the sediment core. The algae form under the sea ice, with the algae production dependent on the thickness of the ice – with thicker ice, the sun rays do not readily reach the algae for photosynthesis. Using the algae in the marine sediments, the researchers estimated the thickness of the ice over time. According to a hypothesis involving the Thermohaline Circulation, thick ice in the North Atlantic slows down the circulation. This may explain why the D/O events feature a gradual cooling. The cause of the rapid warming is not explained. However, these natural events may have contributed to what is claimed to be human-caused global warming. See links under Changing Cryosphere.

    Censorship: According to an article appearing in the student newspaper of the University of Notre Dame: “Three professors co-teaching an online course called ‘Medical Humanities in the Digital Age’ at the University of Colorado-Colorado Springs recently told their students via email that man-made climate change is not open for debate, and those who think otherwise have no place in their course.”…“The point of departure for this course is based on the scientific premise that human induced climate change is valid and occurring. We will not, at any time, debate the science of climate change, nor will the ‘other side’ of the climate change debate be taught or discussed in this course …,”

    The email from the three professors also cites the made-up claim of “98% [97%] of climate scientists…” Since the topics involve “fracking” – hydraulic fracturing of shale for oil and natural gas – discussion of the solid evidence in supporting and opposing each position is in order. Following the above quote of the week from Einstein, perhaps the professors involved censor questions because they do not understand the subject sufficiently well to provide answers. See link under Censorship.

    Boring, But Important: Donn Dears has a succinct description on the levelized costs of replacing existing power plants with new wind and solar power plants. [Levelized costs are used in attempting to compare the costs of various forms of generating electricity over a period of time.] For example, Dears uses the estimate that an existing coal-fired power plant costs 4 cents per kWh, while a new typical wind turbine costs about 10.4 cents per kWh. Such high costs for renewables are being demonstrated in Spain, Italy, Germany, Denmark, and the UK. Yet, politicians such as California Governor Pat Brown do not believe that replacing reliable, affordable electricity generation with unreliable, more expensive generation leads to job losses. Apparently, they believe that unreliable, expensive electric power is the path to prosperity. See Links under Energy Issues – US and California Dreaming.

    Who Benefits? The threats of litigation by various states’ attorneys general and US Senators against organizations who do not follow the declarations of these politicians on global warming seems to be imploding. The threats were built on largely unsubstantiated, and absurd claims that the views of many organizations are based on the comparatively few dollars a few organizations may have received from Exxon, etc. As discussed previously in TWTW, some of the academic instigators of potential litigation had visions of great windfalls similar to what occurred following the settlements with tobacco companies.

    Writing in the Wall Street Journal, columnist Holman Jenkins explains the distasteful behavior of these attorneys general and their supporters. The following day, the Journal has an editorial on the subject. Just before these, the Journal published an op-ed piece on who benefited from the billions in cash settlements the federal government extracted from major banks, in part from their participation in programs that the federal government encouraged or required. And many politicians wonder why the current economic period, following the much heralded Stimulus Bill”, is called the Great Recession.
    See Articles # 1, 2, & 3. [SEPP has not confirmed the recipients of the bank settlements.]

    Additions and Corrections: There were several errors and examples of poor wording in last week’s TWTW.

    Several readers pointed out the following statement is incorrect: What is very interesting is that, other than Canada, the largest receiver of US oil exports is Curacao in oil-rich Venezuela, with 54,000 b/d.

    Curacao is part of the Kingdom of Netherlands, but is located approximately 40 mi (65 km) north of the Venezuelan coast. The refinery there is operated by Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the state-owned oil company of Venezuela.

    Another reader asked: “Your last item about the 500,000 bpd exports of US oil to Canada begs an explanation. Is it that Canada has under used refining capacity that is not engaged with its own prodigious production from the oil sands, or is it mostly the logistics, without a west to east pipeline, preventing an economic means of transporting western crude to the refineries on the St. Lawrence seaway?”

    The oil to Canada is probably used mostly for blending with heavy Canadian crude and replacement of light oil from Libya. From EIA June 5, 2013, post:

    “Eastern Canadian refineries are increasing their use of U.S.-sourced crude oil …Canadian refineries, like those in the United States, are working to increase their use of growing production of crude oil from Texas and North Dakota. Monthly exports of crude oil from the United States to Canada have historically averaged 24,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) and were principally delivered to refineries in central Canada. However, U.S. exports to Canada averaged nearly 100,000 bbl/d over the first 3 months of 2013.”…

    Also, the discussion on water injection causing earthquakes in Oklahoma and similar areas needs amplification. In certain areas, conventional oil wells often produce a great deal of surplus water under high pressure. Often, the produced water has a high salt content as well as other Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). A common practice has been to inject the produced water into sand-stone formations. The practice is leading to minor earthquakes.

    This is different than the process of using hydraulic fracturing of underground formations, principally dense shale, to produce oil and natural gas. The water used, mixed with sand and chemicals is often “slick-water.” SEPP does not know of an example where hydraulic fracturing, using “slick-water”, is causing earthquakes.

    Environmental Engineer Jeffrey Miller writes: “There was some good work in the mid 90’s that I was involved with, managing produced water from natural gas wells. The documents were Gas Research Institute (GRI) sponsored projects. Effectively treatment with Electro-dialysis (ED) was tested on brine water from the Lysite, Wyoming, gas field. There is some other work that was done, characterizing produced water from gas fields published in some papers.”

    These will be discussed in an upcoming TWTW.
    Another addition: Reader Clyde Spencer writes to Fred Singer concerning the Antarctic Ozone Hole (AOH).

    “I just read your article from the American Thinker. You may remember that we first exchanged email about 1996. I had built a computer model to try to predict surface UV [Ultra-Violet radiation] based on TOMS ozone data. To this day, I still have not seen any ground-based measurements confirming an increase in surface UV, despite all the Media warnings about cataracts and melanoma. Of course, one of the reasons is that the sun never gets above the so-called ‘ozone hole.” It always has a long slant range in September and October, passing through air that is rich in ozone outside the circumpolar vortex.

    “The AOH is a problem in search of validation.

    Unlike some professors at the University of Colorado, TWTW deeply appreciates meaningful questions and comments from its readers.

    Number of the Week: Up 18.6%. The web site, Climate Change reports on a 2005 two-day international discussion meeting held by the Royal Society entitled “Food Crops in a Changing Climate”, which was partially organized by the University of Reading. A press release announced the grim findings that, in-spite of carbon dioxide fertilization, climate change will cause yields of maize, rice, soybean and wheat to decline by as much as 20%. According to the World Bank, the average yield in cereals in 2005 was 3280 kg per hectare, in 2014 (the last year data is available) the yield was 3890 kg per hectare, an increase of 18.6%. See links under Below the Bottom Line and…


    Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?

    New study suggests the Sun is even more important than we thought on Earth’s climate due to its impact on cosmic rays
    By Paul Dorian, Vencore Weather, Aug 29, 2016 [H/t GWPF]…
    Link to report; Cosmic Rays are Intensifying [Mar 2025 - Jan 2016]
    By Tony Phillips,, Jan 31, 2016…
    “The agreement between the two curves is remarkable [Bishop, CA, and Oulu, Finland.]. It means that the intensification of cosmic rays is making itself felt not only over the poles, but also over lower latitudes where Earth’s magnetic field provides a greater degree of protection against deep space radiation.”
    [SEPP Comment: It may be more correct to say small variations in the Sun are more important…]

    Climate science debates find their place in the Sun
    By Robert Matthews, The National, UAE, Aug 28, 2016…


    Professors tell students: Drop class if you dispute man-made climate change
    ‘We will not, at any time, debate the science of climate change
    By Kate Hardiman, Univ of Notre Dame, The College Fix, Aug 31, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…
    [From Spencer: Voltaire: “I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend with my life your right to say it.” How much we have changed!]

    Suppressing Scientific Inquiry – The Witch Hunt – Push-Back

    Conservative Think Tank Sues New York Attorney General Over Exxon Documents
    The Competitive Enterprise Institute tries legal maneuver to uncover collaboration between AGs in their investigations of the oil giant.
    By David Hasemyer, Inside Climate News, Aug 31, 2016…

    RICO Charges Against ‘Climate Deniers’: A Case of Goose and Gander
    Guest Opinion: Dr. Tim Ball, WUWT, Aug 29, 2016…

    Journalist: #ExxonKnew is ‘completely unraveling’
    [WSJ video] interview with Business World Columnist Holman Jenkins Jr. of the Wall Street Journal on how #ExxonKnew “is completely unraveling.”
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Aug 29, 2016…

    New York AG That Attacked Exxon Sued For Concealing Investigation
    By Kathryn Watson, Daily Caller, Aug 31, 2016…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

    Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming
    The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus
    By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, NIPCC, Nov 23, 2015
    Download with no charge…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science
    Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2013…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts
    Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2014…

    Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate
    S. Fred Singer, ed., NIPCC, 2008…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy

    Assessing the causes of early industrial-era warming
    By Nic Lewis, Climate Etc. Sep 1, 2016…

    Was early onset industrial-era warming anthropogenic, as Abram et al. claim?
    A guest post by Nic Lewis, Climate Audit, Aug 31, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Some more detail than post in Climate, Etc. immediately above.]

    Reversing a Long Standing Wrong
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Aug 30, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: The Linear No-Threshold Model.]

    Mid-19th Century Warming Likely To Be Natural, Not Human-Induced, Says Independent Climate Scientist
    By Staff Writers, GWPF, Aug 31, 2016…

    People enhanced the environment, not degraded it, over past 13,000 years
    By Staff Writers, Waterloo, Canada (SPX) Aug 31, 2016…
    Link to paper: Intertidal resource use over millennia enhances forest productivity
    By Andrew Trant, et al. Nature Communications, Aug 30, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Results for a coastal section of British Columbia, Canada, should not be over-generalized.]

    Defending the Orthodoxy

    IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis.
    Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. 2013…

    Why people can’t grasp climate change
    By Phil Plait, Dallas Morning News, Aug 30, 2016 [Clyde Spencer]…
    [SEPP Comment: A few problems with the “facts” as expressed by the author.]

    Questioning the Orthodoxy

    Refocusing the USGCRP
    By David Wojick, Climate Etc. Aug 29, 2016…

    A Brave New Epoch?
    By Doug Hoffman, The Resilient Earth (Dec 2010) Via GWPF, Aug 30, 2016…

    An Inconvenient Truth: Few Signs Of Global Warming In Antarctica
    By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller News Foundation, Aug 27, 2016…

    After Paris!

    President Obama and Chinese President Xi will officially join the Paris Climate Treaty on 3rd September
    By Myron Ebell, Global, Sep 2, 2016…

    Obama formally joins US into climate pact
    By Timothy Cama and Devin Henry, The Hill, Sep 3, 2016…

    Paris deal will cost at least $1.28T — economist
    By Hannah Hess, E&E reporter, Aug 31, 2016 [H/t GWPF]…

    Hollande Admits Paris Climate Treaty Has a Long Way to Go
    By Staff Writers, The American Interest, Sep 1, 2016…

    Emergency Theater for Paris Agreement: China, US rush to sham ratification
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Aug 28, 2016 [H/t Climate Depot]…

    A turning point looms for electricity and climate
    By David Fullbrook, Energy Post, Aug 31, 2016…
    “To prevent catastrophic global warming, the world may have to issue a moratorium on new fossil-fuel power plants, writes David Fullbrook,”
    “’…if [Asia] implements the coal-based plans right now, I think we are finished,’ Jim Yong Kim, World Bank president, told Washington’s Climate Action Summit in early May.”
    [SEPP Comment: If they do not, declare war?]

    The Administration’s Plan – Independent Analysis

    The $8 Trillion Fight Over How to Rid America of Fossil Fuel
    Economists agree it can be done, but differ on how much it will cost.
    By Eric Roston, Bloomberg, Aug 30, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Will all who subscribe to the plan sign contracts that they will never use facilities, including hospitals, that use fossil fuels?]

    The Administration’s Plan – Push-Back

    Where Climate “Let’s Pretends” Lead
    By Alan Carlin, Carlin Economics and Science, Sep 1, 2016…

    Failures and Fallout of Iran Nuclear Deal
    By Larry Bell, Newsmax, Aug 29, 2016…

    Obama shows what not to do on climate policy
    By Nicolas Loris, The Hill, Sep 2, 216…

    Social Benefits of Carbon

    Climate change has less impact on drought than previously expected
    Plants retain more moisture in high carbon dioxide conditions, keeping water on land
    By Staff Writers, Science Daily, Aug 29, 2016…
    Link to paper: Plant responses to increasing CO2 reduce estimates of climate impacts on drought severity
    By Abigail Swann, et al, PNAS, Aug 29, 2016…

    Problems in the Orthodoxy

    “Dominating Factor”…Leading Warmist Climatologist Concedes Natural Oceanic Cycles Directly Related To Troposphere Temperature
    By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Aug 31, 2016…
    Link to paper: Decadal variability of tropical tropopause temperature and its relationship to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation
    By Wang, Matthes, Omrani, & Latif, Nature Scientific Reports, July 12, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Cooling of the stratosphere due to PDO, not CO2 or greenhouse effect?]

    Seeking a Common Ground

    Experiment Results Show a Cool Object Can Make a Warm Object Warmer Still
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Aug 28, 2016…

    Simple Time-Dependent Model of the Atmospheric Greenhouse Effect
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Aug 30, 2016…

    Review of Recent Scientific Articles by CO2 Science

    Tree Range Shifts
    Malis, F., Kopecky, M., Petrik, P., Vladovic, J.,Merganic, J. and Vida, T. 2016. Life stage, not climate change, explains observed tree range shifts. Global Change Biology 22: 1904-1914. Sep 2, 2016…

    Modeling 12 Centuries of Northern Hemispheric Hydroclimate
    Ljungqvist, F.C., Krusic, P.J., Sundqvist, H.S., Zorita, E., Brattstrom, G. and Frank, D. 2016. Northern Hemisphere hydroclimate variability over the past twelve centuries. Nature 532: 10.1038/nature17418. Aug 31, 2016…
    “And so it is that Ljungqvist et al. conclude that ‘much work remains before we can model hydroclimate variability accurately, and highlights the importance of using paleoclimate data to place recent and predicted hydroclimate changes in a millennium-long context.’”

    Elevated CO2 Stimulates the Growth of an Aquatic Fern
    Van Kempen, M.M.L., Smolders, A.J.P., Bögemann, G.M., Lamers, L.P.M. and Roelofs, J.G.M. 2016. Interacting effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment and solar radiation on growth of the aquatic fern Azolla filiculoides. Freshwater Biology 61: 596-606. Aug 29, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Using CO2 at 400, 1000 and 1600 ppm, Spring and Autumn growth is particularly impressive.]

    Model Issues

    Climate policy: Fake it ’til you make it
    By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Aug 30, 2016…
    “The economic models that are used to inform climate policy currently contain an unhealthy dose of wishful thinking.”

    Measurement Issues — Surface

    NOAA Adjustments Increase US July Warming By 1,000%
    By Steve Goddard, NYT, Via ICECAP, Aug 27, 2016…

    Measurement Issues — Atmosphere

    UAH Global Temperature Update for August, 2016: +0.44 deg. C
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Sep 1, 2016…

    Global Temperature Report: August 2016
    August 2016 and 2016-to-date are second warmest
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Sep 1, 2016…

    Measuring Aerosols
    By Staff Writers, NASA Earth Observatory, Accessed September 4, 2016…

    Changing Climate

    Sea ice strongly linked to climate change in past 90 000 years
    By Staff Writers,, Aug 16, 2016…
    Link to paper: Sea ice and millennial-scale climate variability in the Nordic seas 90 kyr ago to present
    By Hoff, Rasmussen, Stein, Ezat & Fahl, Nature Communications July 26, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Indicates Dansgaard/Oeschger events.]

    Have precipitation extremes and annual totals been increasing in the world’s dry regions over the last 60 years?
    By Sebastian Sippel, et al. Physics.Geo, Sep 1, 2016 [H/t Climate Etc.]…
    [SEPP Comment: Choice of reference periods creates trends that do not apply to the complete dataset.]

    Clues in ancient mud hold answers to climate change
    By Staff Writers, Science Daily, Sep 1, 2016…
    Link to paper: A progressively wetter climate in southern East Africa over the past 1.3 million years
    By T.C. Johnson, et al. Nature, Aug 10, 2016…
    “Climate in this sector of eastern Africa (unlike northern Africa) evolved from a predominantly arid environment with high-frequency variability to generally wetter conditions with more prolonged wet and dry intervals.”
    [SEPP Comment: Some commentators apply the findings to all of Africa.]

    1200 years of climate change in the Bear River Basin, Utah
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Sep 2, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: None!]

    The “Dantean Anomaly” Project: Tracking Rapid Climate Change in Late Medieval Europe
    By Dr. Martin Bauch, Historical Climatology, Aug 27, 2016 [H/t Climate Etc.]…
    [SEPP Comment: Would Dante’s third circle of hell be censored today?]

    Changing Seas

    30 Scientific Papers Reveal Inverse CO2 – Sea Level Signal: As CO2 Rises, Sea Level Falls
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Aug 29, 2016…

    New Papers Confirm Sea Levels Aren’t Rising Fast Enough — Coastal Land Area Growing, Not Shrinking
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Sep 1, 2016…

    Rising seas, by decade [From Space]
    By Staff Writers, Sea Level Change, No Date…
    [SEPP Comment: Dispute the statement: “…and the long term rise in global sea levels that is the result of human-caused warming.” Four hundred feet (120 meters) of long term rise in global sea levels occurred before man’s use of fossil fuels.]

    Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

    How bacteria, rust dust, and a murdered star may explain Earth’s Ice Age
    By Staff Writers, Yahoo, Aug 28, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…
    Link to press release: Detection of a time-resolved supernova signal in microfossils
    Interaction of Earth with supernova remnants lasting for one million years
    By Staff Writers, Technical University of Munich, Aug 10, 2016…
    Link to paper: Time-resolved 2-million-year-old supernova activity discovered in Earth’s microfossil record
    By Peter Ludwig, et al. PNAS, Au6 16, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Covers the period from about 2.8 to 1.7 million years ago. Does not explain later ice ages.]

    By Staff Writers, Nature Geoscience, No Date [H/t Climate Etc.]…
    [SEPP Comment: Series of research and comment pieces on the Arctic Permafrost.]

    An ice-free Arctic Ocean has happened before
    By Matt Ridley, Rational Optimist, Aug 29, 2016…

    Matt Ridley: Ice Scares Aren’t All They’re Cracked Up To Be
    By Matt Ridley, The Times, Via GWPF, Aug 29, 2016…

    German Scientists Slam Guardian’s Hyping Of A “Fringe Scientific Position” On Arctic Sea Ice
    Arctic sea ice more stable than thought: once again likely no new record melt
    By Dr. Sebastian Lüning and Prof. Fritz Vahrenholt, (German text translated by P Gosselin), No Tricks Zone, Aug 27, 2016…

    Technique could assess historic changes to Antarctic sea ice and glaciers
    Staff Writers,, Aug 30, 2016…
    Link to paper: Source identification and distribution reveals the potential of the geochemical Antarctic sea ice proxy IPSO25
    By S. T. Belt, et al., Nature Communications, Aug 30, 2016…

    Changing Earth

    Earth’s Surface Gaining Coastal Land Area, Despite Sea Level Rise
    Guest post by David Middleton, WUWT, Aug 30, 2016…

    NASA Study Solves Two Mysteries About Wobbling Earth
    By Carol Rasmussen, NASA, Apr 8, 2016…

    Pounding waves from weather bomb storm felt across continents
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Aug 29, 2016…

    Communicating Better to the Public – Exaggerate, or be Vague?

    New map shows alarming growth of the human footprint
    By Staff Writers, Science Daily, Aug 24, 2016 [H/t Toshio Fujita]…
    Link to paper: Sixteen years of change in the global terrestrial human footprint and implications for biodiversity conservation
    By Oscar Venter, et al. Nature Communications, Aug 23, 216…
    [SEPP Comment: According to the story, another 97% of something??? According to the abstract from 1993 to 2009: “We note that while the human population has increased by 23% and the world economy has grown 153%, the human footprint has increased by just 9%.]

    Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.

    Studies blaming ailments on Pennsylvania fracking are flawed
    By Katie Brown, Energy In Depth, UPI, Aug 30, 2016…
    Link to defensive article: Fracking & health: What we know from Pennsylvania’s natural gas boom
    By Rasmussen, Schwartz, and Casey, UPI, Aug 25, 2016…
    “In their study claiming a link between fracking and sinus problems, migraines and fatigue, the researchers did not even ask the patients if they had migraines or fatigue before shale development.”

    Questioning European Green

    Comparative cost effectiveness of weather dependent Renewable Energy in the UK
    By Ed Hoskins, Edmhdotme, No Date [2015 data] [H/t Paul Homewood]…
    The late Professor David Mackay in his final interview with Mark Lynas in April 2016 stated that powering the UK wholly with Renewable Energy is an “Appalling Delusion”.

    Britain Likely To Miss Climate Target As Motorists Shun Electric Cars
    By Peter Campbell, Financial Times, Via GWPF, Sep 1, 2016…
    “Britain has a legally binding obligation to cut its greenhouse gas emissions by 80 per cent by 2050 compared with 1990 levels. To meet these targets, about 60 per cent of the cars and lorries on the roads must be electric by 2030.”

    Energy Issues – Non-US

    Chart: Which Countries Are Damaged Most by Low Oil Prices?
    By Jeff Desjardins, Visual Capitalist, Aug 26, 2016 [H/t Market Watch]…
    [SEPP Comment: Saudi Arabia, Russia, Iraq and UAE lead the way in losses from export earnings.]

    EIA: OPEC oil revenue down nearly 50 percent
    By Daniel J. Graeber, Washington (UPI), Aug 26, 2016…

    France To Cut Nuclear Power By A Third
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Aug 30, 2016
    “Which rather begs the question, where the hell will we [UK] get our electricity from, when we are reliant upon interconnectors to France and the wind is not blowing?”

    UK government looks to ‘the internet of energy’ to help keep the lights on
    By John Glenday, The Drum, Aug 31, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: All going back to wood & coal stoves and fireplaces for heat?]

    Energy Issues — US

    Boring, But Important LCOEs
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Sep 2, 2016…
    Link to report: The Levelized Costs of Electricity from Existing Generation Resources, 2016
    By Stacy and Taylor, IER, July 2016

    Five things to know about the Dakota Access Pipeline fight
    By Devin Henry, The Hill, Aug 27, 2016…

    NREL Study: Eastern Interconnect Would Strain If 30% Of Annual Electricity Was Solar And Wind
    By Ron Adams, Forbes, Aug 31, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…
    Link to study: Eastern Renewable Generation Integration Study
    By Staff Writers, NREL, No Date…
    Using high-performance computing capabilities and innovative visualization tools, NREL shows the power grid of the Eastern United States—one of the largest power systems in the world—can accommodate upwards of 30% wind and solar/photovoltaic (PV) power.
    [SEPP Comment: If the speculative models do not work, does the grid work?]

    Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?

    Proving Them Wrong: How The U.S. Oil And Gas Industry Survived
    By Stuart Burns, Oil, Aug 31, 2016…

    When Global Oil Prices Tanked, Shale Oil Production Didn’t. Here’s Why.
    By Thomas Covert, Forbes, Aug 31, 2016…

    Oil Spills, Gas Leaks & Consequences

    Fracking Really Isn’t So Bad
    By James Conca, Forbes, Aug 28, 2016…
    Link to study: Point source attribution of ambient contamination events near unconventional oil and gas development
    By Zacariah Hildenbranda, et al. Science of The Total Environment, Dec 15, 2016 [sic]…
    …[studies using instruments] “suggest that contamination events from unconventional oil and gas development can be monitored, controlled, and reduced.”

    Nuclear Energy and Fears

    Nuclear power plants prepare for old age
    Materials research is at the heart of efforts to keep the world’s reactors running well past 2050.
    By Jeff Tollefson, Nature, Aug 30, 2016…

    Fusion facilities at PPPL and Culham, England, could provide path to limitless energy
    By Staff Writers, Princeton NJ (SPX), Aug 31, 2016…

    S. Korea succeeds in mass production of nuclear fusion fuel
    By Staff Writers, The Korea Times, Aug 25, 2016 [H/t Toshio Fujita]…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind

    Offshore Wind’s $0.24/kWh: Deepwater Project Nears Launch (states, ratepayers take note)
    By Allen Brooks, Master Resource, Aug 31, 2016…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Energy — Other

    World first for Shetlands in tidal power breakthrough
    Nova Innovation deploys first fully operational array of tidal power turbines in the Bluemull Sound
    By Severin Carrell, Guardian, UK, Aug 29, 2016…

    Why Are Early Adopters of Lithium-Ion Battery Manufacturing Getting Out of the Game?
    Sony and (maybe) Nissan are dropping their battery production as the industry matures.
    By Julian Spector, Green Tech Media, Aug 31, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: It may be that they no longer foresee high profit margins.]

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Vehicles

    EVs: An Ancient, Not Infant, Industry
    By Robert Bradley, Master Resource, Aug 30, 2016…

    California Dreaming

    California Keeps its Dying Carbon Market on Life Support
    By Staff Writers, The American Interest, Aug 26, 2016…

    Gov. Brown: ‘Is Very Dubious’ that Global Warming Legislation Causes Job Loss
    By Eric Scheiner, CNS News, Aug 25, 2016…
    [SEPP Comment: Replacing reliable, affordable electricity generation with unreliable more expensive generation is the path to prosperity?]

    Environmental Industry

    How to Milk a Bull! Bad bee science and activist capture at the FT
    By Staff Writers, The Risk Monger, Aug 26, 2016 [H/t GWPF]…

    Other Scientific News

    Earth Just Narrowly Missed Getting Hit by an Asteroid
    The asteroid missed the Earth by less than a quarter of the distance to the Moon.
    By Avery Thompson, Popular Mechanics, Aug 30, 2016 [H/t Clyde Spencer]…

    Commonly Cited Stat — 10 Bacteria For Every 1 Human Cell — Is Wrong
    By Alex Berezow, ACSH, Aug 26, 2016…
    Link to paper: Revised Estimates for the Number of Human and Bacteria Cells in the Body
    By Sender, Fuchs & Milo, PLOS Biology, Aug 19, 2016…

    Other News that May Be of Interest

    Chevron Paves The Way For Corporations To Fight ‘Shakedown Lawsuits’

    Editorial, IBD, Sep 2, 2016…

    Worse than we thought – global food production!
    By Staff Writers, Climate Change, Aug 31, 2016…

    “The impact of climate change on global crop production is likely to be worse than previously predicted, scientists said at a Royal Society discussion meeting partly organised by Reading scientists in London.

    “A two-day international meeting entitled ‘Food Crops in a Changing Climate’ brought together world-class scientists in the fields of meteorology, climate science and agriculture, to discuss the impacts of a changing climate on the productivity of staple food crops, grown throughout the world.

    “’Both these results show that we need to seriously re-examine our predictions for future global food production as they are likely to be far lower than previously estimated.’ said Professor Steve Long from Illinois University.”
    From: University of Reading, Impact of climate change on crops worse than previously thought, 27 Apr 2005

    1. How the Exxon Case Unraveled
    It becomes clear that investigators simply don’t know what a climate model is.
    By Holman Jenkins, WSJ, Aug 30, 2016…

    “New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman’s investigation of Exxon Mobil for climate sins has collapsed due to its own willful dishonesty. The posse of state AGs he pretended to assemble never really materialized. Now his few allies are melting away: Massachusetts has suspended its investigation. California apparently never opened one.

    “The U.S. Virgin Islands has withdrawn its sweeping, widely criticized subpoena of research groups and think tanks. In an email exposed by a private lawsuit, one staffer of the Iowa AG’s office tells another that Mr. Schneiderman himself was “the wild card.”

    “His initial claim, flounced to the world by outside campaigners under the hashtag “exxonknew,” fell apart under scrutiny. This was the idea that, through its own research in the 1970s, Exxon knew one thing about climate science but told the public something else.

    “In an Aug. 19 interview with the New York Times, Mr. Schneiderman now admits this approach has come a cropper. He reveals that he’s no longer focusing on what Exxon knew/said but instead on how it goes about valuing its current oil reserves. In essence, Mr. Schneiderman here is hiding his retreat behind a recent passing fad in the blogosphere for discussing the likelihood that such reserves will become “stranded assets” under some imaginary future climate regime.

    “His crusade was always paradoxical. The oil industry reliably ranks last in Gallup’s annual survey of public credibility. The $16 million that Exxon spent between 1998 and 2005 to support organizations that criticized speculative climate models is a minuscule fraction of the propaganda budgets of the U.S. Energy Department, NASA, NOAA, EPA, not to mention the United Nations’ climate panel, etc. etc.

    “The episode ends happily, though, if Mr. Schneiderman’s hoped-for political career now goes into eclipse. But we haven’t finished unless we also mention the press’s role.

    “The ‘Exxon knew’ claim, recall, began with investigative reports by InsideClimate News and the Los Angeles Times, both suffering from the characteristic flaw of American journalism—diligently ascertaining and confirming the facts, then shoving them into an off-the-shelf narrative they don’t support.

    “We have since learned that both the L.A. Times (via a collaboration with the Columbia School of Journalism) and InsideClimate News efforts were partly underwritten by a Rockefeller family charity while Rockefeller and other nonprofit groups were simultaneously stoking Mr. Schneiderman’s investigation.

    “When caught with your hand in the cookie jar in this way, there’s only one thing to do, and last week the Columbia School of Journalism did it, awarding a prize to InsideClimate News.

    “For this columnist, however, the deeper mystery was cleared up last year when I appeared on the NPR show “To the Point” to discuss the subject “Did Exxon Cover Up Climate Change?” (Google those phrases) with ICN’s “energy and climate” reporter Neela Banerjee.

    “Ms. Banerjee has been collecting plaudits all year for her work. The work itself involved revisiting Exxon’s climate modeling efforts of the 1970s. Yet, at 16:28, see how thoroughly she bollixes up what a climate model is. She apparently believes the uncertainty in such models stems from uncertainty about how much CO2 in the future will be released.

    “’The uncertainties that people talk about . . . are predicated on the policy choices we make,’ namely the “inputs” of future CO2.

    “No, they aren’t. The whole purpose of a climate model is to estimate warming from a given input of CO2. In its most recent report, issued in 2013, the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assumes a doubling of atmospheric CO2 and predicts warming of 1.5 to 4.5 degrees Celsius—i.e., an uncertainty of output, not input.

    “What’s more, this represents an increase in uncertainty over its 2007 report (when the range was 2.0 to 4.5 degrees). In fact, the IPCC’s new estimate is now identical to Exxon’s 1977 estimate and the 1979 estimate of the U.S. National Research Council.

    “In other words, on the crucial question, the help we’re getting from climate models has not improved in 40 years and has been going backward of late.

    “For bonus insight, ask yourself why we still rely on computer simulations at all, rather than empirical study of climate—even though we’ve been burning fossil fuels for 200 years and recording temperatures even longer.

    “OK, many climate reporters have accepted a role as enforcers of orthodoxy, not questioners of it. But this colossal error not only falsifies the work of the IPCC over the past 28 years, it falsifies the entire climate modeling enterprise of the past half-century.

    “But it also explains the non sequitur at the heart of the InsideClimate News and L.A. Times exposés as well as Mr. Schneiderman’s unraveling investigation. There simply never was any self-evident contradiction between Exxon’s private and public statements. In emphasizing the uncertainty inherent in climate models, Exxon was telling a truth whose only remarkable feature is that it continues to elude so many climate reporters.”

    2. Schneiderman’s Climate Secrets
    What is New York’s Attorney General trying to hide?
    Editorial, WSJ, Aug 31, 2016…

    The editorial states:

    “When Eric Schneiderman and 16 other Democratic state attorneys general announced in March that they were targeting Exxon Mobil for its alleged heresy on climate change, they called themselves “AGs United for Clean Power.” A better name would have been AGs United for More Power. To great media fanfare, they unleashed a series of broad subpoenas designed to intimidate dissenters from the Obama orthodoxy on climate change.

    “One such dissenter was the Competitive Enterprise Institute, a free-market think tank that was hit in April with a subpoena from Virgin Islands AG Claude Walker. Mr. Walker sought a decade’s worth of emails and donor names regarding the think tank’s climate and energy work. But CEI fought back in the press and in court, and Mr. Walker withdrew his subpoena after he was countersued.

    “That’s not the end of the story. CEI still doesn’t know how this campaign came to be—and where it might still be headed. So on Wednesday the group headed back in court, filing a suit under New York’s freedom of information law to ask the ringleader of the AG coalition—Empire State AG Schneiderman—to produce “any common interest agreements” he entered into as part of this effort.

    “Specifically, CEI wants to know about any deal the AGs made with groups such as the Eco-Accountability Project, the Center for International Environmental Law and others. In other words, CEI wants to know which “private activists” Mr. Schneiderman was working with and what the terms of the deal were when he launched this crusade. This relates directly to the political and economic motives behind this government power play.

    “So far Mr. Schneiderman’s office has refused to cooperate with the CEI request. CEI’s lawyer says this is nothing more than an attempt to hide what the AGs were up to behind “a shroud of secrecy.”

    “Let’s hope a judge agrees. Mr. Schneiderman, his fellow AGs and their activist pals have been trying to use the law to punish people, businesses and institutions over a difference of opinion. This is the kind of abuse that public transparency laws were designed to expose.”

    3. Look Who’s Getting That Bank Settlement Cash
    Tens of millions of dollars disguised as ‘consumer relief’ are going to liberal political groups.
    By Andy Koenig, WSJ, Aug 28, 2016…

    “Imagine if the president of the United States forced America’s biggest banks to funnel hundreds of millions—and potentially billions—of dollars to the corporations and lobbyists who supported his agenda, all while calling it “Main Street Relief.” The public outcry would rightly be deafening. Yet the Obama administration has used a similar strategy to enrich its political allies, advance leftist pet projects, and protect its legacy—and hardly anyone has noticed.

    “The administration’s multiyear campaign against the banking industry has quietly steered money to organizations and politicians who are working to ensure liberal policy and political victories at every level of government. The conduit for this funding is the Residential Mortgage-Backed Securities Working Group, a coalition of federal and state regulators and prosecutors created in 2012 to “identify, investigate, and prosecute instances of wrongdoing” in the residential mortgage-backed securities market. In conjunction with the Justice Department, the RMBS Working Group has reached multibillion-dollar settlements with essentially every major bank in America.

    “The most recent came in April when the Justice Department announced a $5.1 billion settlement with Goldman Sachs. In February, Morgan Stanley agreed to a $3.2 billion settlement. Previous targets were Citigroup ($7 billion), J.P. Morgan Chase ($13 billion), and Bank of America, which in 2014 reached the largest civil settlement in American history at $16.65 billion. Smaller deals with other banks have also been announced.

    “Combined, the banks must divert well over $11 billion into “consumer relief,” which is supposed to benefit homeowners harmed during the Great Recession. Yet it is unknown how much, if any, of the banks’ settlement money will find its way to individual homeowners. Instead, a substantial portion is allocated to private, nonprofit organizations drawn from a federally approved list. Some groups on the list—Catholic Charities, for instance—are relatively nonpolitical. Others—La Raza, the National Urban League, the National Community Reinvestment Coalition and more—are anything but.

    “This is a handout to the administration’s allies. Many of these groups engage in voter registration, community organizing and lobbying on liberal policy priorities at every level of government. They also provide grants to other liberal groups not eligible for payouts under the settlements. Thanks to the Obama administration, and the fungibility of money, the settlements’ beneficiaries can now devote hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars to these activities.

    “The settlements also give banks a financial incentive to fund these groups. Most of the deals give double credit or more against the settlement amount for every dollar in “donations.” Bank of America’s donation list—the only bank to disclose exactly where it sends its money—shows how this benefits liberal groups. The bank has so far given at least $1.15 million to the National Urban League, which counts as if it were $2.6 million against the bank’s settlement. Similarly, $1.5 million to La Raza takes $3.5 million off the total amount of “consumer relief” owed by the bank. There are scores of other examples.

    “Our analysis of over 80 beneficiaries from Bank of America’s settlement shows that they received, on average, more than 10% of their 2015 budgets from the bank. When other bank checks are added, the amount funneled to these organizations is guaranteed to rise. And the banks have multiple years to pay their total penalties, meaning some liberal interest groups can count on additional funding for years—and election cycles—to come.

    “As part of their “consumer relief” penalties, Bank of America and J.P. Morgan Chase must also pay a minimum $75 million to Community Development Financial Institutions—taxpayer-funded groups propped up by the Obama administration as an alternative to payday lenders. “Housing Counseling Agencies” also get at least $30 million. This essentially circumvents Congress’s recent decision to cut $43 million in federal funds routed to these groups through the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

    “The politicians who negotiate the settlements as part of the RMBS Working Group have also directed money to their supporters and states. Illinois’s Democratic attorney general Lisa Madigan announced she had secured $22.5 million from February’s Morgan Stanley deal for her state’s debt-ridden pension funds—a blatant payout to public unions. The deals with J.P. Morgan Chase, Bank of America and Citigroup yielded a further $344 million for both “consumer relief” and direct payments to pension funds.

    “New York hit the jackpot too. Attorney General Eric Schneiderman, also a Democrat and chairman of the RMBS Working Group, arranged for Morgan Stanley to fork over $400 million to New York nonprofits and $150 million to the state.

    “Despite the best efforts of a few principled legislators late last year, Congress missed an opportunity to amend the Justice Department’s funding bill to stop further handouts. Lawmakers now have another opportunity as Congress enters budget negotiation for fiscal year 2017. Rep. Bob Goodlatte (R., Va.) introduced a bill in April that would prevent government officials from enforcing settlements that funnel money to third parties, and it needs to gain wider traction with his colleagues. The political shakedowns disguised as public service must end.”

    Mr. Koenig is senior policy adviser at Freedom Partners Chamber of Commerce.