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    SEPP Articles and Links are for those of you who are serious about hearing from true science

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    The Week That Was: 2018-02-17 (February 17, 2018)
    Brought to You by The Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Quote of the Week.
    “We are in the uncomfortable position of extrapolating into the next century without understanding the last.” – Walter Heinrich Munk, American physical oceanographer. professor of geophysics emeritus [H/t Climate Etc.]

    Number of the Week: 3400% growth in eight years.

    THIS WEEK:
    By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Sea Level Hockey Stick? Judith Curry continues her excellent analysis of sea level rise and the need to assure against false conclusions. Unfortunately, too many “experts” have drawn conclusions from preliminary data even before errors in measurement and calculations were fully resolved. As with early calculations of temperatures from satellite data, early errors in the measurement and calculations lead to skepticism for the entire method of measurements. For science to advance, one must recognize that errors, though not desirable, must be expected, then corrected. For satellite temperature data, minor changes in orbits were not originally recognized, but when recognized, calculations were changed accordingly.

    Unfortunately, many of the same organizations that ignore comprehensive temperature calculations from satellite data, independently verified by balloon data, made long-term calculations of sea level rise from early satellite data. These calculations were used to proclaim human influence on sea levels, without consideration of the errors involved. These organizations include the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which is a political organization, not a scientific one, and its followers such as the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP).

    Sadly, following these erroneous procedures, entities of once distinguished scientific organizations such as NASA and NOAA have promoted alarm, rather than focusing on the uncertainty of the measurements and recognizing the continued efforts to improve measurements. As Curry states:

    “Significant work has been done to devise methods to accurately calibrate altimeter measurements against a global network of tide gauges. As a result, a number of drifts and bias changes have been discovered and corrected, including an early software error that caused the estimate to be nearly 7 mm yr-1 too high, drifts in the water vapor correction from the microwave radiometer,
and changes in the sea state bias model. Calibration efforts are ongoing, which is essential for obtaining an accurate climate record from satellite altimetry.

    “Summary. Satellite measurements of global sea level have been available since 1992, and the technology is under continuing development. Complex analysis methods are required to transform raw satellite measurements into sea level variations, including the correction and piecing together of records collected over many years by ageing and changing satellites. Estimates of sea level change made using satellite-collected data are associated with many uncertainties in the data processing; with time, the uncertainty in current analysis methods and datasets may be revised as addition [al sic] errors are uncovered. There is some inconsistency between the results derived by different research groups for the interannual variability, owing to differences in making the complex adjustments. These uncertainties underscore the need for continual scrutiny of the satellite and in situ tide gauge data, plus the need for independent observing systems such as multiple satellite altimeters with differing instrument designs, the tide gauge network, in situ ocean temperature observing system, and gravimetric satellites.”

    As discussed in TWTW on January 21, 2017, IPCC and USGCRP, and NOAA reports needlessly speculate an unrealistic sea level rise (SLR), thereby harming any realistic planning by local, concerned authorities. The TWTW stated:

    “For example, Tampa Bay Climate Science Advisory Panel (CSAP) reported that ‘Based upon a thorough assessment of scientific data and literature on SLR, the CSAP concludes that the Tampa Bay region may experience SLR somewhere between 6 inches to 2.5 feet in 2050 and between 1 to 7 feet in 2100.’ The 1-foot rise is from extrapolation of readings from local tidal gages. The 7-foot rise is from NOAA high estimates from IPCC and USGCRP reports.”

    The government entities that wildly speculate on sea level rise do not benefit the public, but harm it. The leadership of these organizations should be so informed.

    [Amusing side comment: the latest satellite data shows a modest, uneven rise since 2016. Could one argue that the nomination of Donald Trump frightened the sea gods from uprising? Maybe Donald Trump is more powerful than King Canute!] See links under Seeking a Common Ground, Changing Seas, Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up and
    https://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/so…

    Trump Budget: The Trump administration announced its first new budget, not an extension of the mid-year budget announced in 2017. Analysts on all sides immediately followed with their comments. Of course, one can only guess at what may come out of Congress. Among issues of note for TWTW readers are the Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).

    The Global Climate Change Initiative (GCCI) was a policy of the Obama Administration, which provided monies to the UN Green Climate Fund, without approval of Congress. The funding for these programs came largely through the State Department and USAID. According to reports the Trump budget reduces the funding to State and USAID by 30% to $39.3 billion. If the administration is pulling out of the Paris Accord, there is no reason to fund its programs. These programs were never established by Congress as a priority, they were only priorities in the past administration.

    Also, the Trump administration proposes to make changes to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) to streamline the process for obtaining environmental approvals. Of course, the environmental groups object to any streamlining by claiming it will “weaken” environmental protections. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA), called the Stimulus Bill, was passed with supporters in Congress and President Obama claiming it would provide “shovel-ready” jobs. Later, President Obama “joked?” that the jobs were not quite shovel-ready. Long, involved approvals were required. Of the estimate total cost of some $830 billion, less than 10% of the cost went to public works, the bulk went to various forms of income maintenance.

    Although President Obama complained about the slow pace of stimulus bill, he expanded the scope of NEPA by issuing guidance through the Council of Environmental Quality that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be the proxy for climate change impacts of a proposed action reviewed under NEPA. As discussed in the August 6, 2016 TWTW, the Guidance stated:

    “This approach, together with providing a qualitative summary discussion of the impacts of GHG emissions based on authoritative reports such as the USGCRP’s National Climate Assessments and the Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States, a Scientific Assessment of the USGCRP, allows an agency to present the environmental and public health impacts of a proposed action in clear terms and with sufficient information to make a reasoned choice between no action and other alternatives and appropriate mitigation measures, and to ensure the professional and scientific integrity of the NEPA review.”

    As it is implemented, NEPA creates lengthy delays in virtually all major construction projects that have an impact on the environment, regardless of how important. For example, since 1900, New Orleans has been flooded by major hurricanes six times: in 1915, 1940, 1947, 1965 (Betsy), 1969 (Camille) and 2005 (Katrina).

    After hurricane Betsy caused a storm surge in Lake Pontchartrain that overcame the levees and flooded a part of New Orleans, the Corps of Engineers announced it would build a barrier system like the Dutch use to stop storm surges from the North Sea. Environmental groups successfully sued to stop the project claiming that the Final Environmental Impact Statement was not sufficient.

    On December 30, 1977, in Save Our Wetlands, Inc. vs. Early J Rush III (Corps of Engineers), Federal Judge Charles Schwartz, Jr. ruled “it is the opinion of the Court that plaintiffs herein have demonstrated that they, and in fact all persons in this area, will be irreparably harmed if the barrier project . . . is allowed to continue.” (Boldface added). An appeal failed. The decision was proudly posted on the web site of “Save Our Wetlands, Inc.”. until hurricane Katrina flooded New Orleans in 2005, in the same manner as Betsy. Then it quietly disappeared.

    Legal actions made in the name of environmental protection can destroy human lives and property. Ironically, after Katrina, President Bush received most of the blame, both nationally and locally, for the damage done by this natural event. Subsequently, Mayor Ray Nagin of New Orleans was convicted for diverting funds that were earmarked for improving the levees (that were claimed to be sufficient but were poorly built) to stop flooding of New Orleans via Lake Pontchartrain. He was the latest in a long list of local politicians who diverted such funding. See Article # 1, links under Change in US Administrations, Funding Issues, and
    http://library.water-resources.us/d…

    Arctic Disturbances: Once again, fears built on claims that the warming of the Arctic is a threat to humanity are appearing. As with past claims that warming will cause massive releases of methane, thus greatly compounding the initial warming, the current claims fall apart with analysis. The current fear is a release of mercury threatening the globe. Writing in The Reference Frame, physicist Luboš Motl demolishes the claim; see link under Challenging the Orthodoxy.

    Lowering Standards: The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) announced the recipient of its 2018 award for Public Engagement – Michael, “Hockey-stick” Mann. On Climate Etc. Judith Curry cites the award and a few comments by Roger Pielke, Jr. including:

    “My issue here is not with Mann. It is with the decision by AAAS to single out Mann as someone who embodies our highest values of the scientific community: a role model to emulate who engages in behaviors to celebrate.

    “With this award, what message is AAAS sending to the scientific community and to the public?

    “The AAAS is telling us that engaging in hyper-partisan, gutter politics, targeted against Republicans and colleagues you disagree with, using unethical tactics, will be rewarded by leaders in the scientific community.

    “AAAS could work to help to defuse the pathological politicization of science. Instead, it has thrown some gasoline on the fire.”

    Perhaps the purpose of AAAS is to intensify “pathological politicization of science” in hopes of gaining more financial support by promoting fear of humanity. In commenting on the speculative increase in sea level rise, discussed above, the staff writers of the AAAS publication EurekAlert stated: “Twenty-five years of satellite data prove climate models are correct in predicting that sea levels will rise at an increasing rate.” [Boldface added]

    These data prove nothing, but the exaggerations by AAAS demonstrate disturbing trends. Note: Mr. Mann has claimed that Fred Singer and SEPP have received funding from Phillip Morris (tobacco), Texaco (oil) and Monsanto (chemical), without offering any evidence. Fred Singer and SEPP have received no such funding. See links under Lowering Standards and Seeking a Common Ground

    100% Renewable: We have another study on how the nation can obtain 100% of its energy requirements from “renewables,” mainly solar and wind. As usual, the problems of storage and its costs are idealized and minimized – just ask South Australia.

    Independently, Roger Andrews of Energy Matters may have hit on the solution for this problem – use the Great Lakes for pumped hydro storage. Surely the Canadians would not mind. Imagine the number of “green jobs” that will be created in just preparing, filing, and attacking & defending the required NEPA permits! See links under Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind and Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Storage.

    Number of the Week: 3400% growth in eight years. According to data from the US EIA, prior to January 2010, monthly oil production from shale was miniscule, less than 300,000 barrels per day (b/d). It increased slowly then rapidly, with a downturn. By January 2018, it grew to 5.2 million b/d – over 34 times, or 3400% in eight years. This exceeds the 4.9 million b/d of US conventional oil production. Over 50% of total US oil production now comes from shale. Oil and gas production from shale is not a temporary “flash in the pan” as many “experts” claimed earlier. See article # 2 and last week’s TWTW.

    NEWS YOU CAN USE:

    Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?

    Scientists warn of unusually cold Sun: Will we face another ice age?
    A study by the University of California San Diego has said the Sun will experience a cold period where all solar activities will be reduced drastically.
    By Bihu Ray, IBT, Feb 8, 2018
    http://www.ibtimes.co.in/scientists…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science
    Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2013
    https://www.heartland.org/media-lib…
    Summary:
    http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts
    Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2014
    http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/…
    Summary:
    https://www.heartland.org/media-lib…

    Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming
    The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus
    By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, NIPCC, Nov 23, 2015
    http://climatechangereconsidered.or…
    Download with no charge
    https://www.heartland.org/policy-do…

    Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate
    S. Fred Singer, Editor, NIPCC, 2008
    http://www.sepp.org/publications/ni…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy

    Diagnosing Climate Sensitivity Assuming Some Natural Warming
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Feb 16, 2018
    http://www.drroyspencer.com/2018/02…

    Repealing the Climate Endangerment Finding Is Crucial to Restoring EPA’s Integrity
    By Alan Carlin, Carlin Economics and Science, Feb 16, 2018
    http://www.carlineconomics.com/…
    “It is only by repealing the scientifically invalid EF that scientific objectivity can come to future EPA actions concerning climate change.”

    Permafrost mercury hysteria is shameful corrupt pseudoscience
    By Luboš Motl, The Reference Frame, Feb 10, 2018
    https://motls.blogspot.com/2018/02/…

    Defending the Orthodoxy

    Permaforst Stores a Globally Significant Amount of Mercury
    By Paul Schuster, et al. Geophysical Research Letters, Feb 5, 2018
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/…
    [SEPP Comment: See link immediately above.]

    Twenty-five years of satellite data confirm rising sea levels
    By Staff Writers, EurekAlert, (AAAS) Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_rele…

    Leaked U.N. climate report sees ‘very high risk’ the planet will warm beyond key limit
    By Chris Mooney, Washington Post, Feb 14, 2018 [H/t Jo Nova]
    http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/…

    Surprise, IPCC draft report leaked, on cue, ready to be milked for another round of press
    Six months to go and why waste a perfectly good press opportunity?
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 16, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/su…
    [SEPP Comment: See link immediately above.]

    Donald Trump’s Extract-Everything Energy Policy Dooms Us All
    The expansion of the fossil-fuel industry has been transformed into a major component of American foreign policy.
    By Michael Klare, The Nation, Feb 12, 2018 [H/t Real Clear Energy]
    https://www.thenation.com/article/d…

    More afraid of Climate Change Yeti than going to jail
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 14, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/mo…

    Questioning the Orthodoxy

    Enstrom’s Expose of Air Pollution Epidemiology Problems
    By John Dale Dunn, Dose Response, Letter, Feb 12, 2018
    http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/ful…

    It’s weather, not climate change, Governor Brown
    By Robert W. Endlich, Canada Free Press, Feb 14, 2018
    http://canadafreepress.com/article/…

    Man-Made Global Warming
    Statements collected by John Shanahan, Environmentalists of Nuclear USA, Accessed Feb 13, 2018
    http://www.efn-usa.org/environment/…

    Let the climate debate begin!
    By Tom Harris Sentinel News, Utah, Feb 12, 2018
    http://www.sentinelnews.net/article…

    After Paris!

    EU Trade Threat: Paris Climate Ratification in All Future Trade Deals
    Guest essay by Eric Worrall, WUWT, Feb 12, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…

    Change in US Administrations

    Trump proposes sweeping changes to NEPA
    By Nick Sobczyk, E&E News, Greenwire, Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/greenwire/20…
    Link to plan: Legislative Outline for Rebuilding Infrastructure in America
    By Staff Writers, The White House, February 2018
    https://www.whitehouse.gov/wp-conte…

    White House plan erodes oversight in floodplains
    By Daniel Cusick, E&E News, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…
    “The infrastructure plan stops short of scrapping NEPA, but it does call for sweeping changes to the nearly 50-year-old environmental law that serves as the foundation for much of the nation’s environmental regulations, including rules governing development in floodplains.”
    [SEPP Comment: Congress, not the courts, should define floodplain or Waters of the United States!]

    EPA chief’s questions about climate science draw new scrutiny
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Feb 10, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…

    Energy policy in Trump era bodes well for Americans and business
    By Dan Byers, The Hill, Jan 26, 2018 [H/t Real Clear Energy]
    http://thehill.com/opinion/energy-e…

    Problems in the Orthodoxy

    Study: massive U.S. agriculture in the midwest has a climate cooling effect
    From MIT: Intensive agriculture influences U.S. regional summer climate, study finds
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 13, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    “This is a really important, excellent study,” says Roger Pielke Sr., a senior research scientist at CIRES, at the University of Colorado at Boulder, who was not involved in this work. “The leadership of the climate science community has not yet accepted that human land management is at least as important on regional and local climate as the addition of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere by human activities.”

    Seeking a Common Ground

    Sea level rise acceleration (or not): Part IV – Satellite era record
    By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Feb 17, 2018
    https://judithcurry.com/2018/02/17/…

    Update: libel cases and the ‘climate wars’
    By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Feb 14, 2018
    https://judithcurry.com/2018/02/14/…

    Review of Recent Scientific Articles by CO2 Science

    Temperature-Induced Morbidity in California
    White, C. 2017. The dynamic relationship between temperature and morbidity. Journal of the Association of Environmental and Resource Economists 4: 1155-1198. Feb 16, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…
    “Considering all of the author’s findings, it is clear that colder weather is a far greater risk to human health than are warm temperatures.”

    A Coral’s Biological Control of its Calcifying Medium to Favor Skeletal Growth
    Raybaud, V., Tambutté, S., Ferrier-Pagès, C., Reynaud, S., Venn, A.A., Tambutté, É., Nival, P. and Allemand, D. 2017. Computing the carbonate chemistry of the coral calcifying medium and its response to ocean acidification. Journal of Theoretical Biology 424: 26-36. Feb 15, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…

    35 Years of Hail Frequency and Intensity Records for China
    Ni, X., Zhang, Q., Liu, C., Li, X., Zou, T., Lin, J., Kong, H. and Ren, Z. 2017. Decreased hail size in China since 1980. Scientific Reports 7: 10913, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-11395-7. Feb 14, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…
    “In light of all the above, Ni et al. conclude that these observational changes ‘imply a weakened [frequency and] intensity of hailstorms in China in recent decades.’ And that finding does not bode well for climate models, which predict that just the opposite should be occurring.”

    Model Issues

    Beware EPA ‘Social Cost of Carbon’ Models
    By Shawn Ritenour, Master Resource, Feb 14, 2018
    https://www.masterresource.org/soci…

    Measurement Issues — Surface

    US Big Freeze Is Adjusted Out Of Existence By Noaa
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 16, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    “Clearly NOAA’s highly homogenised and adjusted version of the Central Lakes temperature record bears no resemblance at all [to] the actual station data.
    “And if this one division is so badly in error, what confidence can there be that the rest of the US is any better?”

    Changing Weather

    Arctic Weather Brrrrreaking Records
    By Steve Selden, Churchill News, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    http://churchillpolarbears.org/2018…

    Land Of The Rising Cold …Japan Sees One Of Its Worst Winters In Decades …Heavy Snow And Bitter Cold
    By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Feb 11, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/11/…

    Changing Climate

    Medieval Temperature Trends in Africa and Arabia
    A synthesis of paleotemperature reconstructions from published case studies suggests warm onshore temperatures persisted across most of Afro-Arabia between 1000 and 1200 CE.
    By Terri Cook, EOS, Feb 9, 2018 [H/t WUWT]
    https://eos.org/research-spotlights…
    Link to main paper: Warming and Cooling: The Medieval Climate Anomaly in Africa and Arabia
    By Sebastian Lüning,,Mariusz Gałka, Fritz Vahrenholt, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, Nov 11, 2017
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/…
    From the abstract: “The most likely key drivers of the observed medieval climate change are solar forcing and ocean cycles.”

    New Study Maps Medieval Warm Period in Africa
    By Staff Writers, GWPF, Feb 15, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/new-study-m…
    Link to paper: Warming and cooling: The Medieval Climate Anomaly in Africa and Arabia.
    Lüning, S., M. Gałka, F. Vahrenholt (2017): Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology 32 (11): 1219-1235, doi: 10.1002/2017PA003237, Nov 11, 2017
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/…
    Link to second paper: ): Hydroclimate in Africa during the Medieval Climate Anomaly.
    By Lüning, S., M. Gałka, I. B. Danladi, T. A. Adagunodo, F. Vahrenholt, Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology, Feb 12, 2018 (In Press)
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien…

    A never before western published paleoclimate study from China suggests warmer temperatures in the past
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 11, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    [SEPP Comment: TWTW and CO2 Science have linked to many such papers.]

    Evidence for a massive biomass burning event at the Younger Dryas Boundary
    By Staff Writers, SPX, Santa Barbara, CA, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/E…

    Changing Climate – Cultures & Civilizations

    Why did Greenland’s Vikings disappear?
    By Eli Kintisch, Science, Nov 10, 2016 [H/t Climate Etc.]
    http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2016…
    [SEPP Comment: As winter temperatures fell 2°C (estimated)below the long-term below freezing, and storminess increased, marine food became more important in the diet as to Nordic agriculture. But what happened to access to the seas?

    Changing Seas

    Sea level rise acceleration (or not): Part III – 19th & 20th century observations
    By Judith Curry, Climate Etc. Feb 10, 2018
    https://judithcurry.com/2018/02/10/…
    [SEPP Comment: See link immediately below.]

    NASA reports New Study shows Global Sea Level Rise has Accelerated over past 25 years
    By Katie Weeman, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, and Patrick Lynch, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Feb 14, 2018 [H/t Bill Balgord]
    http://www.clarksvilleonline.com/20…

    SEA LEVEL: Rise and Fall – Part 4a – Getting Even More of a Rise Out of Nothing
    Guest Essay by Kip Hansen, WUWT, Feb 14, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    [SEPP Comment: See link immediately above.]

    Climate change creates free real estate in Tuvalu: “climate refugees” can all go home
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 11, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/cl…
    “The Green Blob is going to have to get rid of satellites. Real data is so inconvenient.”

    Sea rise is outpacing Everglades restoration — but scientists say there’s a solution
    By Jenny Staletovich, Miami Herald, Feb 12, 2018
    http://www.miamiherald.com/news/loc…

    Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

    Why did gas hydrates melt at the end of the last ice age?
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 13, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    Link to paper: Glacigenic sedimentation pulses triggered post-glacial gas hydrate dissociation
    By Karstens, J., H. Haflidason, L. W. M. Becker, C. Berndt, L. Rüpke, S. Planke, V. Liebetrau, M. Schmidt, J. Mienert, Nature Communications, Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41…

    The Epic Failure Of Glacier-Melt, Sea Level Rise Alarmism Continues To Bespoil Climate Science
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Feb 12, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/12/…

    Thick ice ‘catastrophic’ for Magdalen Islands grey seal hunters
    Sealers come back empty-handed after ice blocks attempts to reach herds off Nova Scotia coast
    By Julia Page, CBC News, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t Paul Homewood]
    http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montr…

    Agriculture Issues & Fear of Famine

    Cancel the famine alarm! Temperature resilient crops now an ‘achievable dream’
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 12, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…

    Un-Science or Non-Science?

    Southern Hemisphere climate variability forced by Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet topography
    By T.R. Jones, et al, Nature, Feb 5, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nat…

    Lowering Standards

    Michael Mann gets award for climate activism
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 14, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…

    Communicating Better to the Public – Exaggerate, or be Vague?

    Farm sunshine, not cancer: Replacing tobacco fields with solar arrays
    Researchers contend that tobacco farmers could increase profits by converting their land to solar farms, which in turn provides renewable energy generation.
    By Staff Writers, Science Daily, Feb 5, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    https://www.sciencedaily.com/releas…
    Link to paper: Economic impact of substituting solar photovoltaic electric production for tobacco farming
    By R. Krishnana, J.M. Pearce, Land Use Policy, Mar 2018
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scien…
    “In a case study of North Carolina, 30GW of PV power capacity was found to be economically viable on existing tobacco farms and if conversion took place over 2000 premature deaths could be prevented from pollution reduction alone.”
    [SEPP Comment: EPA numbers on dangers of coal power plants in the US are highly questionable. Paper does not describe economic benefits to the farmer, only to government in the form of costs to public health of tobacco.]

    Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.

    Oceans could be more than 2 feet higher by 2100 — study
    By Cecelia Smith-Schoenwalder, E&E News, Feb 14, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/greenwire/20…
    Link to paper: Climate-change–driven accelerated sea-level rise detected in the altimeter era
    By Nerem, Beckley, Fasullo, Hamlington, Masters and Mitchum, PNAS, Feb 12, 2018
    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2…

    Remember when ‘climate change’ was the reason for the Syrian war? Never mind…
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 13, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    Link to paper: Sampling bias in climate–conflict research
    By Adams, Ide, Barnett & Detges, Nature Climate Change, Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41…

    Communicating Better to the Public – Do a Poll?

    The Fallacy of the Ninety-Seven Percent
    By Ruth Weiner, ANS Nuclear Café, Feb 7, 2018
    http://ansnuclearcafe.org/2018/02/0…

    Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda

    Matt Damon’s ‘Downsizing’ Movie Is More Tired Overpopulation Nonsense From The Usual Suspects
    By Steve Goreham, Daily Caller, Feb 15, 2018
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/15/m…

    Questioning European Green

    Britain’s Energy Security Is At Risk–But It’s Not From Putin
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 13, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    “I don’t think Putin will have to worry about knocking out our energy infrastructure. We’re already doing a pretty good job ourselves!”

    UK Wind Capacity Is Increasing–But At What Cost?
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 15, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…

    Matt Ridley: Britain Needs to Embrace the Shale Revolution
    By Matt Ridley, The Times, Via GWPF, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/matt-ridley…

    Funding Issues

    Trump’s Infrastructure Plan: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly
    By Marc Scribner, CEI, Feb 12, 2018
    https://cei.org/blog/trumps-infrast…

    Climate loses in Trump’s plan. Here’s who wins
    By Adam Aton, E&E News, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…
    [SEPP Comment: Flood mapping, mass DOE Weatherization, and Amtrak are cut as well as]

    Trump seeks big cuts to science across agencies
    By Scott Waldman, E&E News, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060…

    Trump budget cuts renewable energy office, ups nuclear weapons spending
    By Timothy Gardner, Reuters, Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-…

    International climate programs on chopping block — again
    By Jean Chemnick, E&E News, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…

    First take: Trump’s 2019 budget not as disastrous for science as it first appears
    By David Malakoff, Science, Feb 12, 2018
    http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018…

    The zealous overselling of climate science has come home to roost…as budget cuts
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 12, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…

    Trump Budget Backs Nuclear, Coal; Cuts Funding for Renewables
    By Darrell Proctor, Power Mag, Feb 12, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    http://www.powermag.com/trump-budge…

    The Political Games Continue

    Senate bill would let EPA implement global greenhouse gas deal
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Feb 16, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    “The legislation would give the EPA authority to ban hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), potent greenhouse gases used in refrigeration and air conditioning.”

    Litigation Issues

    Tim Ball’s Victory in the First Climate Lawsuit Judgment – The Backstory
    Guest opinion: Dr. Tim Ball, WUWT, Feb 14, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…

    Exxon Sues the Suers in Fierce Climate-Change Case
    By Bob Van Voris, Bloomberg, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/arti…

    Subsidies and Mandates Forever

    China cuts subsidies for many electric cars, lifts standards
    Automakers face higher range requirements as fraud prompts aid reduction
    By Yu Nakamura, Nikkei, Feb 15, 2018
    https://asia.nikkei.com/Politics-Ec…

    Texas’s CREZ Transmission Line: Wind Power’s $7 Billion Subsidy (ratebase socialism as ‘infrastructure improvement’)
    By Robert Bradley Jr. Master Resource, Feb 16, 2018
    https://www.masterresource.org/cre/…
    “Most every Texas ratepayer pays around $3–$5 per month (and will do so for a decade) for CREZ, a project that never would have been built if the wind developers themselves had to foot the bill.
    “Concentrated benefits – diffused costs strikes again in the political world.”

    Energy Issues – Non-US

    Global Energy Forecast to 2100
    By Euan Mearns, Energy Matters, Fe 15, 2018
    http://euanmearns.com/global-energy…
    A global energy demand forecast is presented to 2100 based on historic growth of per capita energy consumption, 1965-2015 and on UN low and medium population growth forecasts. The low forecast sees energy demand growing from 13.15 billion tonnes oil equivalent (toe) per annum in 2015 to 19.16 billion toe in 2100. The medium population forecast sees 29.5 billion toe in 2100, that is a rise of 124% over 2015. This is an interactive post where commenters are invited to suggest where all this additional energy may come from.

    The Great Energy Transition Gathers Momentum–(Or Not!)
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 14, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…

    China Electricity Stats For 2017
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 16, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    Link to data: China Energy Portal
    Tracking China’s transition to sustainable energy | Powered by crowdsourced translation, Feb 6, 2018
    https://chinaenergyportal.org/en/20…
    [SEPP Comment: Over 50% of the non-nuclear 2016 to 2017 growth is thermal (coal and gas).]

    Ignore the biased BBC – fracking is the future
    By Harry Wilkinson, The Conservative Woman, Feb 15, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    https://www.conservativewoman.co.uk…

    Energy Issues — Australia

    How much do we have to pay people to NOT use electricity – up to 30 times more?
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 17, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/ho…

    Third blackout in Victoria — blame the possums
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 14, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/th…
    “Australia has a gold-plated network, which is why our electricity is so expensive.”

    Energy Issues — US

    EIA estimates for USA in 2050: The Future is Fossil Fuels and Cheap Electricity
    What energy transformation?
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 12, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/ei…

    Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?

    Oil Saves New England
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Feb 13, 2018
    http://www.powerforusa.com/2018/02/…
    [SEPP Comment: Now that New Hampshire has the NIMBY (Not In My Back-Yard) fever and decided not to allow additional high intensity power lines through New Hampshire from Canada to Massachusetts, the plans for Massachusetts to import more electricity from Hydro-Québec through New Hampshire are in trouble. This denial brings into question the renewable energy plan of Massachusetts.]

    OPEC’s Oil Price Nightmare Is Coming True
    U.S. shale production is surging on higher crude, now the fear is waning demand growth.
    By Julian Lee, Bloomberg, Feb 11, 2018
    https://www.bloomberg.com/gadfly/ar…

    Scramble for gas in eastern Med begins to overheat
    By Richard Wachman, Arab News, Feb 9, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    http://www.arabnews.com/node/124375…

    Two OPEC Nations Set to Open Giant Fields. At What Cost to Deal?
    By Angelina Rascouet, Bloomberg, Feb 8, 2018
    https://www.bloomberg.com/news/arti…

    Oil Spills, Gas Leaks & Consequences

    Feds order partial shutdown at Cheniere LNG export site
    Jenny Mandel and Mike Soraghan, E&E News, Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/energywire/2…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind

    New England Solar Madness
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Feb 16, 2018
    http://www.powerforusa.com/2018/02/…

    New Mark Z. Jacobson Study Draws A Roadmap To 100% Renewable Energy
    By Steve Hanley, Clean Technica, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    https://cleantechnica.com/2018/02/0…

    Wind industry to blow past other renewable energy sources after solar panel tariffs
    By Ben Wolfgang, The Washington Times, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    https://www.washingtontimes.com/new…

    Europe installs 3 GW offshore as turbine sizes soar; AT&T signs giant wind contract
    By Staff Writers, New Energy Update, Feb 14, 2018
    http://newenergyupdate.com/wind-ene…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Storage

    The pumped hydro storage potential of the Great Lakes
    By Roger Andrews, Energy Matters, Feb 12, 2018
    http://euanmearns.com/the-pumped-hy…

    Dropping A Weight Down A Disused Coal Mine Is The New Way To Store Energy – And It Might Just Work
    By Mike Scott, Forbes, Feb 9, 2018 [H/t Energy Matters]
    https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikesc…

    Carbon Schemes

    Energy Department to invest $44M in carbon capture technologies
    By Miranda Green, The Hill, Feb 16, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…

    Environmental Industry

    Utilities, NRDC to regulators: Clean energy is inevitable
    By Rod Kuckro, E&E News, Feb 14, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/greenwire/20…

    BELOW THE BOTTOM LINE:
    Shock News – Icebreaker Sails Through Ice!
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 15, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    [SEPP Comment: A ship-design feature that escaped some newspapers.]

    All bases covered!
    By Staff Writers, Climate Change Predictions.org, Feb 16, 2018
    http://climatechangepredictions.org…
    “The UK’s weather will become both too wet and too dry – and also too cold and too hot – as climate change increases the frequency of extreme events, the Met Office has warned in a new report.
    “Its scientists concluded that on average the UK will see wetter, milder winters and hotter, drier summers in the long term due to global warming.
    “But the natural year-to-year variability of weather will also mean occasional very cold winters, like that of 2010-11, and very wet summers, like that of 2012.”
    The Guardian, 26 Mar 2014

    Spoken like a true climate change believer!
    By Staff Writers, Climate Change Predictions.org, Feb 15, 2018
    http://climatechangepredictions.org…
    “Paris climate talks: Tuvalu PM Enele Sosene Sopoaga criticises demand for evidence of claims. Tuvalu’s prime minister says his country is being expected to provide unreasonably robust scientific evidence to prove it is a victim of climate change to qualify for international support. He said the required evidence was hard to come by in a nation of only 12,000.
    ABC News (Australia), 8 Dec 2015” [Boldface added.]

    ARTICLES:

    1. Trump’s Big Public Works Dig
    Permitting and other reforms are a major policy breakthrough.
    By The Editorial Board, WSJ, Feb 12, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/trumps…

    SUMMARY: The editorial states:

    “The White House on Monday unveiled its plan to raise $1.5 trillion in capital for public works. This will cause sticker shock among Republicans, but the President’s innovative regulatory reforms deserve debate and may even garner some Democratic support.

    “President Trump is proposing to spend $200 billion in federal funds to leverage $1.3 trillion in state, local and private investment in public works. This bid is probably dead on arrival since Republicans have little appetite for more spending after blowing the budget sequestration caps last week.

    “Many bridges and airports need a face-lift, though claims of crumbling roads are overwrought and often politically motivated. One problem is that public works like other discretionary programs are being squeezed by entitlements, which constitute nearly two-thirds of federal spending. But even while politicians in Washington gripe that we—always the royal “we”—don’t spend enough on public works, they consistently prioritize other discretionary programs.

    “Consider: Of the $787 billion stimulus in 2009, only about $60 billion financed public works. Most was spent on safety-net programs and other progressive causes. More Hurricane Sandy recovery money went to “community development” than repairing train tunnels.

    “Many projects that do receive federal funding aren’t national priorities, such as California’s bullet train. That’s because the government typically awards “competitive” grants to politically favored projects rather than those that would produce the biggest economic benefits. The Obama Administration rigged cost-benefit analysis to reward projects that would promote public housing and reduce carbon emissions.”

    The EDITORIAL continues with expected political opposition to the plan.

    2. Shale Output Hasn’t Grown This Fast Since Oil Was at $100
    In closely watched report, IEA warns U.S. crude output is set to outpace demand in 2018
    By Christopher Alessi, WSJ, Feb 13, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/u-s-cr…

    SUMMARY: The journalist reports:

    “U.S. shale companies are churning out crude oil at a record pace that could overwhelm global demand and reverse the oil market’s fragile recovery, a top energy-market observer said Tuesday.

    “U.S. shale production is growing faster in 2018 than it did even during the boom years of $100 a barrel oil prices from 2011 to 2014, said the International Energy Agency in its closely watched monthly report. The difference this time: Oil prices are about 40% lower.

    “The situation is ‘reminiscent of the first wave of U.S. shale growth, ‘ when a flood of American oil built up a global glut and sent prices crashing over four years ago, said the Paris-based IEA, which advises governments and corporations on energy trends.

    “Shale producers ‘cut costs dramatically ‘ during the oil-industry downturn, the IEA said. They then took advantage of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries cartel’s decision last year to cut its own output, which helped prices rise from the low $40s to over $70 a barrel in January.

    “Unlike countries like Russia, shale-oil companies—using techniques like hydraulic fracturing, or fracking—are able to pounce when prices rise and pull back when the market falls. They can drill wells, and then wait to complete the process until it is profitable.

    “Shale-oil producers had promised investors that they would focus on profits this year as prices rose and abandon the pump-at-any-cost mentality that crashed the market. But shale companies have a backlog of nearly 7,000 wells that have been drilled but not completed. That allows operators to increase production by extracting oil from the backlog rather than spending significant amounts on drilling, meaning U.S. output could rise even higher than expected.

    “U.S. oil output could rise as high as 11 million barrels a day by 2019, some oil-industry analysts say, rivaling that of Russia, the world’s biggest crude producer. The U.S. currently pumps over 10 million barrels a day, the most since 1970.

    “ ‘All the indicators that suggest continued fast growth in the U.S. are in perfect alignment, ‘ the IEA said.

    “Led by U.S. shale companies, crude output from non-OPEC nations is expected to outpace the growth in oil demand in 2018, the IEA said. That is an important data point for oil traders who have been watching to see if shale production could catch up to robust demand that has been fueled by a strong global economy.”
    __________________________________________

    The Week That Was: 2018-02-10 (February 10, 2018)
    Brought to You by The Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    Quote of the Week.
    “Akin to, and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture, has been the technological revolution during recent decades.
    “In this revolution, research has become central, it also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for, by, or at the direction of, the Federal government.
    “Today, the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers.
    “The prospect of domination of the nation’s scholars by Federal employment, project allocations, and the power of money is ever present – and is gravely to be regarded.
    “Yet, in holding scientific research and discovery in respect, as we should, we must also be alert to the equal and opposite danger that public policy could itself become the captive of a scientific-technological elite.

    “It is the task of statesmanship to mold, to balance, and to integrate these and other forces, new and old, within the principles of our democratic system – ever aiming toward the supreme goals of our free society. — President Dwight D. Eisenhower, January 17, 1961 [Boldface added.]

    Number of the Week: 10.2 million barrels per day.

    THIS WEEK:
    By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    False Intelligence: President Eisenhower’s farewell address, from which the above quotation is taken, gives valuable advice for setting government policy and the need to ensure that policy is not based on incorrect information, false intelligence, no matter how scrupulously obtained. As the Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force in the European theatre during the planning and execution of Operation Overlord (the Allied invasion of German occupied northwestern Europe), Eisenhower understood the value of solid intelligence, and the dangers of false intelligence. In part, the success in Normandy was built on deception, false intelligence.

    The most logical place for the Allied landings was at Pas de Calais, the area in northern France, which is the shortest distance on the English Channel from southeast England and France, about 33 km (21 miles). This area is over 250 km (160 miles) east of the actual location of the landings. To deceive the German High Command and Hitler into believing that the landings would occur at Pas de Calais, The Allies invented the fictitious First U.S. Army Group, supposedly located in Kent and Sussex under the command of Lieutenant General George S. Patton. They constructed dummy tanks, trucks, and landing craft, positioned them near the coast and allowed German high-altitude recognizance planes a brief view. Some of this “invasion force” was made of specially designed inflatable rubber.

    In addition, several military units moved to the area to bolster the illusion that a large force was gathering there. Real radio traffic from the actual landing force was routed to Kent via landline and then broadcast, to give the Germans the impression that most of the Allied troops were stationed in southeast England. The ruse, trick, was so successful, that for several critical weeks after the Normandy landings, the Germans held back vital combat units to defend against landings at Pas de Calais, which never came.

    Eisenhower’s forces had their own difficulty with faulty intelligence. The hedgerows separating fields in France were not as easily penetrated by mechanized equipment as the hedgerows in England. As a result, the offensive stalled for weeks.

    It is not clear what Eisenhower thought about the faulty Allied intelligence. No doubt, he would have dealt harshly with those providing it, if it were deliberate.

    Many in Washington are attempting to establish greenhouse gas policy, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) policy, and related energy policies based on faulty intelligence provided by the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) in its National Climate Assessments. The greenhouse gas effect occurs in the atmosphere. To directly measure any changes in climate due to greenhouse gases, we need to measure changes in the atmosphere. Surface-air temperature measurements are a poor proxy, as the strong divergence between surface-air temperature trends and atmospheric trends demonstrates.

    Before the method of using satellite data to comprehensively calculate atmospheric temperature was announced in 1990, and thoroughly tested shortly thereafter, there was no option but using incomplete, sparse, surface data. Now, there is no excuse for not using the 39-year satellite data record.

    Yet, the USGCRP, and programs with NOAA, and NASA continue to promote false intelligence based on faulty surface data. Worse, they use long-term forecasts from global climate models which are demonstrated to be wrong – they fail in short-term forecasts. Thus, there is no logical reason to assume the models will succeed in long-term forecasts.

    The US government errs in believing it can build prudent policy based on “scientific research” that deliberately uses false intelligence. That the USGCRP boasts on its web site that it follows the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is an insult. The USGCRP ignores its independent mandate to understand both human and natural influences on climate. See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy – NIPCC, Challenging the Orthodoxy, last week’s TWTW and Eisenhower’s Farewell Address to the Nation at
    http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ike.htm…

    Another Victim of False Intelligence: According to the once distinguished Science Magazine,

    “Kathleen Hartnett White, who had been picked to chair the White House’s Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ), came under fire from senators in both parties for what they characterized as her extremist views and disregard for science.”

    Ms. White has withdrawn her nomination to that post. Her “disregard for science” is that she refused to accept the false intelligence promoted the USGCRP and the Climate Establishment and made statements such as: “CO2 does not have the characteristics of an air pollutant that ‘contaminates and fouls and has a direct impact on human health.’” The questioning by senators from both parties demonstrates that both political parties are infected by false intelligence. The article linked to a letter signed by hundreds of Ph.D.s demonstrating the extent of false intelligence.

    A similar commotion is occurring in the European Union, where key positions rotate among countries every six months. The new president of the EU environment council is the environment minister of Bulgaria, Neno Dimov, who has expressed skepticism about the UN’s version of climate change. See links under Communicating Better to the Public – Go Personal.

    Professor Pangloss? In his satire Candide, ou l’Optimisme, Voltaire created Pangloss, a Professor of “metaphysico-theology-cosmolonigology”, who proved through reason, logic, and analogy this was the best of all possible worlds. Scott Pruitt, the new Administrator of the EPA, expressed the idea, also expressed by SEPP, that increasing CO2 may be beneficial to the world, humanity and the environment. Immediately he was criticized by “scientists” promoting False Intelligence claiming Pruitt was misleading the public. According to E&E “Pruitt’s comments inch closer to those of controversial figures like the former nominee to lead the White House Council on Environmental Quality, Kathleen Hartnett White, who has pointed to carbon dioxide as the ‘gas that makes life possible on Earth.’” Voltaire would have the material to write another satire. See links under Defending the Orthodoxy and Change in US Administrations.

    ________________________________________
    Sea Level Rise Reversed? The Pacific island nation of Tuvalu has long been considered an example a country with is endangered by rising seas. Now, a new study using 43 years of aerial photographs and satellite imagery finds that about three-quarters of the islands grew in land area.

    Probably, this news is not surprising to Nils-Axel Mörner, Clifford Ollier, and others who have physically examined the sea level change in various Pacific Islands and who have expressed skepticism to the claims of a dramatic increase in sea level rise, which is largely based on questionable models. But this increase in land area may be news to the Climate Institute, which has been promoting fear of CO2-caused sea level rise among small island nations, featuring a web site with titles such as “Submerging Paradise: Climate Change in the Pacific Islands” stating:

    “Nowhere is climate change more evident than in small island states, where entire populations are facing existential challenges – the very real prospect of full evacuation, dispersed resettlement, and potential cultural annihilation. Of these, many of the most threatened territories lie within the great expanse of the Pacific Ocean.”

    It should be noted that Michael Calvin MacCracken is a director at the Climate Institute and formerly Chief Scientist for Climate Change Programs. Also, he was executive director of the USGCRP. His objections to the petitions for review EPA’s Endangerment Finding are noted in the July 24, 2017 TWTW. See links under Changing Seas and
    http://climate.org/…
    ________________________________________
    Ozone Again? Reports indicate that the globe’s stratospheric ozone layer may be thinning. If so, it contradicts claims of success of the Montreal Protocol, which was enacted “to protect” the earth’s ozone layer over when greatly exaggerated claims where made on the extent of ozone loss over the polar regions. In the laboratory, it was shown how certain man-made gases used as refrigerants, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), could breakdown ozone molecules. However, it was never well demonstrated how dense molecules of CFCs rise to the stratosphere.

    Today, the Montreal Protocol, which was rushed through and ratified by the US Senate, is being used by international groups to justify controls on greenhouse gases. These actions make one skeptical of the validity of the latest reports on the ozone layer. See links under Models v. Observations
    ________________________________________
    The Right Touch: The on-line Australian magazine Quadrant had an interesting pair of articles on how the Australian Climate Council is promoting the fear of CO2 – caused climate change. It is claiming that the country’s most popular tourist attractions are threatened, including the Great Barrier Reef. A professor who dared to question the threats to the Great Barrier Reef has been sanctioned by his university – the James Cook University, which attempted to silence Robert Carter, one of the editors of the reports by the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) by not renewing his position.

    In the US, claims of damaging the tourist industry are used to oppose the opening of the US continental shelf to drilling beyond the state limits. These fears at least have some basis and have been effective in some states such as California and Florida. It would be interesting to see what would happen if the Federal government changed its royalty laws and allowed states which do not share in royalties to do so. See links under Censorship, Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda, and Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?
    ________________________________________
    Litigation Issues: The litigation issues raised by California municipalities and New York City in their lawsuits against five oil companies continue to raise questions as to the hypocrisy demonstrated by these actions – the governments claim of specific damages from climate change, yet do not so inform investors in their municipal bonds. Over the past two weeks, TWTW has covered some of the issues. Writing in the Wall Street Journal, a former hedge-fund manager who specialized in sovereign debt describes the apparent deceit of municipalities in California, when issuing bonds. The conclusion of his essay bears repeating:

    “Plaintiffs’ lawyers probably never intended that their war on the fossil-fuel industry would end up shining a light on the perilous state of local public finances. But wars have a funny way of creating unintended consequences. If the unqualified statements made in court about the impact of climate change are even half true—regardless of the cause—the finances of many of California’s coastal cities could soon be underwater.” [Boldface added.]

    The taxpayers in these municipalities may be severely burdened by foolish political actions. See Article # 1 and links under Litigation Issues.
    ________________________________________
    Expanding the Orthodoxy: According to reports, “The Ohio State University has joined the newly launched University Climate Change Coalition, an alliance of 13 leading research universities that will create a collaborative model to help local communities achieve climate goals.”

    The University of California leads the group and a list of all committed members is included. According to the report: “In 2016, the U.S.-based members of the coalition performed about one-quarter of the environmental science research conducted by all U.S. institutions, according to data collected by the National Science Foundation.”

    These actions affirm the wisdom of President Eisenhower’s address.

    If policies and programs to “fight climate change” by reducing CO2 emissions are implemented, they are likely to be as successful as German defense of the Pas de Calais against a non-existent army equipped with inflatable tanks, guns, and trucks. See link under Expanding the Orthodoxy.
    ________________________________________
    Number of the Week – 10.2 million barrels per day. According to EIA estimates, in January the US oil production averaged 10.2 million barrels per day, exceeding its average daily production per month record set November 1970 at 10.04 million barrels per day.

    “EIA estimates that U.S. crude oil production averaged 10.2 million barrels per day (b/d) in January, up 100,000 b/d from the December level. EIA estimates that total U.S. crude oil production averaged 9.3 million b/d in 2017 and will average 10.6 million b/d in 2018, which would mark the highest annual average U.S. crude oil production level, surpassing the previous record of 9.6 million b/d set in 1970. EIA forecasts that 2019 crude oil production will average 11.2 million b/d.”

    In 1956, geologist King Hubbard predicted US oil production would peak about 1970. His prediction embodied assumptions, which were forgotten by those who modeled long-term oil production for the Club of Rome and the US government. His assumptions excluded oil from shale, oil sands, and deep-water production. Already, US production of natural gas and natural gas liquids exceed historic maxima. Now, so does oil. Changing technologies with human innovations have a way of making fools of those who make dire predictions. See links under Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past? and
    https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/steo/…

    NEWS YOU CAN USE:
    Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?
    Grand Minimum May Usher In 50 Years Of Global Cooling
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of people Know That, Feb 8, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…

    Scripps: Cooling Sun May Partially Offset Climate Change by Humans
    By Chris Jennewein, Times of San Diego, Feb 5, 2018 [H/t WUWT]
    https://timesofsandiego.com/tech/20…
    Link to Press Release: Reduced Energy from the Sun Might Occur by Mid-century; Now Scientists Know by How Much
    UC San Diego scientists review satellite observations of nearby Sun-like stars to estimate the strength of the next “grand minimum” period of diminished UV radiation
    By Robert Monroe, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Feb 5, 2018
    https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/reduc…
    Censorship
    Science or silence? My battle to question doomsayers about the Great Barrier Reef
    By Prof. Peter Ridd, Fox News, Feb 8, 2018
    http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2018…
    Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC
    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science
    Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2013
    https://www.heartland.org/media-lib…
    Summary:
    http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts
    Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2014
    http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/…
    Summary:
    https://www.heartland.org/media-lib…

    Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming
    The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus
    By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, NIPCC, Nov 23, 2015
    http://climatechangereconsidered.or…
    Download with no charge
    https://www.heartland.org/policy-do…

    Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate
    S. Fred Singer, Editor, NIPCC, 2008
    http://www.sepp.org/publications/ni…
    Challenging the Orthodoxy
    Princeton Physicist Points Out The Obvious: Climate Models ‘Don’t Work’
    By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller, Feb 5, 2018
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/05/p…
    [SEPP Comment: Link to video of Will Happer.]

    Certainty breeds intolerance
    By Martin Livermore, The Scientific Alliance, Feb 9, 2018
    http://scientific-alliance.org/scie…

    Marvel et al.’s new paper on estimating climate sensitivity from observations
    A guest post by Nic Lewis, Climate Audit, Feb 5, 2018
    https://climateaudit.org/2018/02/05…
    Link to paper: Internal variability and disequilibrium confound estimates of climate sensitivity from observations
    By Marvel, Pincus, Schmidt, & Miller, Geophysical Research Letter, Jan 29, 2018
    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/…
    Defending the Orthodoxy
    Scientists correct Pruitt’s climate claims
    By Scott Waldman, E&E News, Feb 8, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…
    “Past civilizations have not thrived in those types of temperatures, because they pre-date human societies, said Allegra LeGrande, a paleoclimate researcher at the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.”
    “It’s misleading to say that the current rate of change is comparable to the past, said Kevin Trenberth, a meteorologist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. He said the world is changing about 100 times faster than what would occur naturally, in terms of the long-term trends.”
    [SEPP Comment: What would Trenberth say about the Younger Dryas?]
    Questioning the Orthodoxy
    Things Your Professor Didn’t Tell You About Climate Change
    By John Kudla, American Thinker, Feb 3, 2018
    http://www.americanthinker.com/arti…

    20 New Papers Crush Claims Of A Man-Made Link To Arctic Climate Change, Glacier Retreat, Sea Ice
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Feb 8, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/08/…

    ‘In climate we trust’
    By Anthony Sadar, Washington Times, Feb 6, 2018
    https://www.washingtontimes.com/new…

    Shock Paper Cites Formula That Precisely Calculates Planetary Temps WITHOUT Greenhouse Effect, CO2
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Feb 5, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/05/…
    [SEPP Comment: Question part of the analysis. Numerous independent experiments demonstrate a greenhouse gas effect, but not as large as claimed by the IPCC and its followers.]
    After Paris!
    Green group threatens to sue State Dept. over absent climate-change report
    By Miranda Green, The Hill, Feb 5, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    [SEPP Comment: More reasons to avoid UN commitments.]
    Change in US Administrations
    With Tax Reform Done, President Trump Should Set Record Straight On ‘Climate Change’
    By James Wallace and Francis Menton, IBD, Feb 9, 2018
    https://www.investors.com/politics/…

    EPA administrator questions ‘assumptions’ that global warming is bad
    By Luis Sanchez, The Hill, Feb 7, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    [SEPP Comment: Do we live in a “best of all possible” times?]

    Pruitt suggests warming can help humans
    By Scott Waldman and Niina Heikkinen, E&E News, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/stories/1060…

    Trump plans shakeup of science council
    By Christa Marshall, E&E News, Feb 6, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/greenwire/20…

    Meet the climate guy who quit Interior
    By Brittany Patterson, E&E News, Feb 6, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…
    Problems in the Orthodoxy
    Remember when global warming was going to increase Malaria? Never mind…
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Feb 7, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    Review of Recent Scientific Articles by CO2 Science
    A Global Analysis of Recent Trends in Streamflow
    Do, H.X., Westra, S. and Leonard, M. 2017. A global-scale investigation of trends in annual maximum streamflow. Journal of Hydrology 552: 28-43. Feb 5, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…
    “Consequently, the three Australian scientists conclude that ‘although there may be evidence of regional increasing trends in flood hazard, the hypothesis that there is a significant increase in flood hazard when averaged over all the data-covered regions of the globe is not supported by this analysis.’ And so it is that another model-based claim is invalidated by observations.

    Copepod Response to Ocean Acidification and Salinity Stress
    Hemraj, D.A., Allais, L. and Leterme, S.C. 2017. A combination of salinity and pH affects the recruitment of Gladioferens pectinatus (Brady) (Copepoda; Calanoida). Limnology and Oceanography 62: 1799-1809. Feb 7, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…

    No Evidence of an Anthropogenic Influence on Floods
    Hodgkins, G.A., Whitfield, P.H., Burn, D.H., Hannaford, J., Renard, B., Stahl, K., Fleig, A.K., Madsen, H., Mediero, L., Korhonen, J., Murphy, C. and Wilson, D. 2017. Climate-driven variability in the occurrence of major floods across North America and Europe. Journal of Hydrology 552: 704-717. Feb 5, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…
    “Hodgkins et al. report that ‘there was no compelling evidence for consistent changes over time in major-flood occurrence during the 80 years through 2010,’ adding that ‘the number of significant trends in major-flood occurrence across North America and Europe was approximately [equal to] the number expected due to chance alone.’”
    Models v. Observations
    Ozone Layer Continues to Deplete Over Last 3 Decades, Warns Study
    A team led by researchers from ETH Zurich and the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos in Switzerland have found that despite the ban on CFCs, the concentration of ozone in the lower part of the stratosphere has continued to decline at latitudes between 60 degree South and 60 degree North.
    By Staff Writers, News 18, India, Feb 6, 2018
    http://www.news18.com/news/world/oz…
    [SEPP Comment: Don’t question! Expand regulations!]

    More about “Ozone at lower latitudes is not recovering”
    Guest Brief by Kip Hansen, WUWT, Feb 7, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    Measurement Issues — Surface
    Scandal: BoM ignores major site changes at iconic, historic, Sydney Observatory. Sloppy or deliberate?
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 7, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/sc…
    “The BOM needs an independent audit. No one would accept this from a public company.”
    Changing Weather
    Weather-related natural disasters 2017: was this a reversion to the mean?
    By Roger Pielke Jr. Risk Frontiers, Feb 5, 2018
    https://riskfrontiers.com/newslette…

    NOAA Scientist Says It’s ‘Misleading’ To Blame Global Warming For Hurricane Harvey’s Rainfall
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 6, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    Link to paper: Hurricane Harvey’s Rainfall and Global Warming
    By Christopher W. Landsea, National Weather Service’s National Hurricane Center, No Date
    http://www.aoml.noaa.gov/hrd/Landse…

    PIK Potsdam Climate Institute Emerges As A Non-Credible Outlier When It Comes To Hurricanes
    Hurricane activity trend declines significantly over the past 65 years
    By Sebastian Lüning and Fritz Vahrenholt, Translated by P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Dec 7, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/07/…

    Europe Cooling…Weather Service Data Show Falling January Mean Temperatures Over Past 30 Years
    January shows no global warming
    By Chris Frey, EIKE, Feb 5, 2018, Via No Tricks Zone, Translated, By P Gosselin, Feb 9, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/09/…
    Changing Climate
    Before climate change: Falling rocks set fire to 10% of land, trigger mini ice age for 1000 years
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 6, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/be…
    Link to press release: New research suggests toward end of Ice Age, human beings witnessed fires larger than dinosaur killer, thanks to a cosmic impact
    By Brendan Lynch, University of Kansas, Feb 1, 2018
    https://news.ku.edu/2018/01/30/new-…
    Link to paper: Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact ∼12,800 Years Ago. 1. Ice Cores and Glaciers
    By Wendy Wolbach, et al. The Journal of Geology, Feb 1, 2018
    http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/do…
    Link to second paper: Extraordinary Biomass-Burning Episode and Impact Winter Triggered by the Younger Dryas Cosmic Impact ∼12,800 Years Ago. 2. Lake, Marine, and Terrestrial Sediments
    By Wendy Wolbach, et al. The Journal of Geology, Feb 1, 2018
    http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/do…
    Changing Seas
    ‘Sinking’ Pacific nation is getting bigger: study
    By Staff Writers, Phys.org, Feb 9, 2018
    https://phys.org/news/2018-02-pacif…
    Link to paper: Patterns of island change and persistence offer alternate adaptation pathways for atoll nations
    By Kench, Ford & Owen, Nature, Communications, Feb 9, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41…

    ‘Sinking’ Pacific Island Touted as Prime Climate Change Victim is Actually Rising Out of the Sea: Study
    By Breitbart Landon, Breitbart, Feb 9, 2018 [H/t Paul Homewood]
    http://www.breitbart.com/london/201…

    World Leading Authority: Sea Level “Absolutely Stable”… Poor Quality Data From “Office Perps”…IPCC “False”
    By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Feb 4, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/04/…
    Changing Earth
    China launches electromagnetic satellite to study earthquake precursors
    By Staff Writers, Beijing (XNA), Feb 05, 2018
    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/C…
    Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.
    Panic! Put up a solar panel or tourism will lose $40b in Australia. (Sure, and people “want” cold holidays.)
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 8, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/pa…
    Communicating Better to the Public – Go Personal.
    Trump to dump controversial environmental nominee
    By Science News Staff, Science, Feb 4, 2018
    http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2018…

    The Historian Who Denies Climate Change? Not so Fast
    By Yoni Anijar History News Network, Oct 4, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    http://historynewsnetwork.org/artic…
    Link to book: A Climate of Crisis: America in the Age of Environmentalism
    By Patrick Allitt, Amazon, UK, Mary 20, 2014
    https://www.amazon.co.uk/Climate-Cr…

    ‘Shocking’: Anger after climate change sceptic becomes EU environment chief
    New president of key European body Neno Dimov previously described phenomenon as a ‘hoax used to scare the people’
    By Josh Gabbatiss, Independent, Jan 26, 2018
    http://www.independent.co.uk/enviro…
    Communicating Better to the Public – Use Propaganda
    Attention, Reporters. Your Story Is Ready
    By Roger Franklin, Quadrant, Feb 8, 2018
    http://quadrant.org.au/opinion/doom…
    Link to report: Icons at Risk: Climate Change Threatening Australian Tourism
    AUSTRALIA’S MOST POPULAR tourist destinations are in the firing line, with intensifying climate change posing a significant threat to the nation’s iconic natural wonders.
    By Staff Writers, Climate Council, AU, Feb 2, 2018
    https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/t…

    The Climate Council’s Global Damage
    By Roger Franklin, Quadrant, Feb 9, 2018
    http://quadrant.org.au/opinion/doom…
    [SEPP Comment: See link immediately above.]
    Expanding the Orthodoxy
    Ohio State University joins new University Climate Change Coalition
    By Karen Farkas, Cleveland.com, Feb 6, 2018
    http://www.cleveland.com/metro/inde…

    TERI, EPTRI team up with NOAA to strengthen climate modelling
    By Staff Writers, Outlook, India, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t Dennis Ambler]
    https://www.outlookindia.com/newssc…
    “NOAA National Centre for Environmental Information Chief David Easterling said, ‘Our goals are to not only share expertise across the science organisations and experts, but also to empower India in understanding and analysing climate model projections and assess their outputs for consideration in developing the State Action Plans.’”

    Time Magazine Promotes Climate Broken Window Fallacy
    Guest essay by Eric Worrall, WUWT, Feb 6, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    [SEPP Comment: From planned, functional obsolescence to planned regulatory obsolescence?]
    Questioning European Green
    Smart Meter Roll Out Stalls
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 6, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    Questioning Green Elsewhere
    Green Dreams of Econ Dictatorship
    By Ashley Fent, GWPF, Feb 6, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/green-dream…
    Link to full paper: Dreams of Eco-Dictatorship: Senegalese Democracy in the Age of Environmental Crisis
    By Ashley Fent, Ufahamu: A Journal of African Studies, 40(1), Winter 2018
    https://cloudfront.escholarship.org…

    Environmentalists Push Global Wealth Redistribution
    By Wesley Smith, National Review, Feb 6, 2018 [H/t Paul Homewood]
    http://www.nationalreview.com/corne…
    Link to paper: A good life for all within planetary boundaries
    By O’Neill, Fanning, Lamb, and Steinberger, Nature, Sustainability, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41…
    Non-Green Jobs
    270 Job Losses At Generator Manufacturer Due To Subsidised Renewable Energy
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 5, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    “It is a sad fact of economic life that job losses occur all the time. But it is doubly galling when they are the result of subsidised competition.”
    Litigation Issues
    State Dept Sued For Not Handing Over Paris Accord Docs
    By Chris White, Daily Caller, Feb 7, 2018 [H/t Cooler Heads]
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/07/s…
    [SEPP Comment: Since these documents were made to formulate public policy, should they not be public? Besides, they were produced by “the most transparent administration in history”—the Obama administration.]

    If only to harness hot air
    Editorial, Washington Time, Feb 4, 2018
    https://www.washingtontimes.com/new…
    “The civic shakedown of the oil and gas producers continues, and the frenzy has spread to California.”
    Cap-and-Trade and Carbon Taxes
    Why a carbon tax does not work
    By H. Sterling Burnett, Washington Times, Feb 6, 2018 [H/t Cooler Heads]
    https://www.washingtontimes.com/new…
    Subsidies and Mandates Forever
    Nixing oil subsidies won’t stop climate change — study
    By Chelsea Harvey, E&E News, Feb 8, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…
    Link to paper: Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions
    By Jessica Jewell, et al. Nature, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nat…
    [SEPP Comment: The vaunted subsidies have mostly been in petrostates to maintain domestic stability.]

    Stop The Stall — It’s Time To Get Energetic About Energy
    By Steve Goreham, Daily Caller, Feb 6, 2018
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/06/s…
    “The world is being forced to return to sensible energy policies based on cost, performance, and real environmental benefit.” [Not subsidies.]

    Solar growth ‘threatened’ by new EU power market rules
    By Frédéric Simon | EURACTIV.com, Feb 5, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    https://www.euractiv.com/section/en…
    “A ‘big fight’ is currently taking place in Parliament about whether small renewable energy installations should enjoy so-called ‘priority dispatch’ to the electricity grid and be exempted from grid balancing responsibilities.”
    Energy Issues – Non-US
    Russia and Saudi Arabia Forge Energy Pact to Counter U.S. Shale Boom
    By Staff Writers, Financial Times, Via GWPF, Feb 8, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/russia-and-…

    The UK’s Costly Electricity Could Prevent Further Emissions Reductions
    By John Constable, GWPF, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/the-uks-cos…
    Link to report: Final UK greenhouse gas emissions national statistics: 1990-2016
    Final estimates of UK greenhouse gas emissions.
    By Staff Writers, Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy. Feb 6, 2018
    https://www.gov.uk/government/stati…

    Gavin Williamson is right: Britain’s energy supply is threatened by Russia
    By Tony Lodge, The Spectator, Feb 1, 2018
    https://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2018/…
    Energy Issues — US
    Department of Energy projections to 2050 suggest that fossil fuels, not renewables, are the energy sources of America’s future
    By Mark Perry, AEIdeas, Feb 6, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    https://www.aei.org/publication/cha…
    Link to report: Annual Energy Outlook, 2018
    By Staff Writers, EIA, Feb 6, 2018
    https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo/…
    “Projections in the Annual Energy Outlook 2018 (AEO2018) are not predictions of what will happen, but rather modeled projections of what may happen given certain assumptions and methodologies.”
    [SEPP Comment: The EIA appears to do a better job testing their assumptions and methodologies than the IPCC and the USGCRP!]

    Growth in Electricity Consumption – Part 2
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Jan 30, 2018
    http://www.powerforusa.com/2018/01/…
    [SEPP Comment: Why it is important to keep nuclear and coal-fired power plants open.]

    Around The World – U.S. Oil, Gas And NGLs Now Inextricably Linked To Global Energy Markets
    By Rusty Braziel, RBN, Feb 4, 2018
    https://rbnenergy.com/around-the-wo…

    New England’s needless energy crisis
    By Karen Harbert, R.I. Providence Journal, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t ICECAP]
    http://www.providencejournal.com/op…
    Link to report: “What if Pipelines Aren’t Built into the Northeast”
    By Staff Writers, Institute for 21st Century Energy, U.S. Chamber of Commerce, 2017
    https://www.globalenergyinstitute.o…
    [SEPP Comment: As the US is increasing exports of hydrocarbon fuels, to include LNG, New England is becoming more dependent on imports.]

    Northern Pass denial in N.H. upends Mass. energy plan
    By Saqib Rahim, E&E News, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/energywire/2…
    [SEPP Comment: No hydro-power from Canada to Mass thru N.H.]
    Washington’s Control of Energy
    Budget deal envisions largest oil stockpile sale in history
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Feb 8, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?
    Historic energy milestone: US oil output surges to new record highs reflecting America’s deep pools of ingenuity, risk taking and entrepreneurship
    By Mark Perry, AEIdeas, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.aei.org/publication/his…

    Trump Wants Offshore Drilling, but States Are Choosing Wind Energy
    States bordering the outer continental shelf are looking for carbon-free electricity as the Trump administration rolls back rules requiring it
    By Brittany Patterson, Scientific American, Feb 5, 2018
    https://www.scientificamerican.com/…

    California officials vow to block Trump plan for more coastal drilling
    By Melody Gutierrez, San Francisco Chronicle, Feb 8, 2018 [H/t Cooler Heads]
    https://www.sfchronicle.com/bayarea…
    Oil Spills, Gas Leaks & Consequences
    Controversial Pennsylvania pipeline can resume construction
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Feb 8, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    Nuclear Energy and Fears
    Exelon to Close New Jersey Nuclear Plant Ahead of Schedule
    The company, citing operating costs and competition from other energy sources, will shut the Oyster Creek plant a year earlier than expected
    By Austen Hufford, WSJ, Feb 2, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/exelon…
    In 2010, Exelon reached a deal with New Jersey regulators to close the Oyster Creek plant at the end of 2019, 10 years ahead of its then-scheduled closure date. That agreement allowed Exelon to avoid building an expensive cooling tower.
    [SEPP Comment: What portion is market economics and what portion is regulatory?]
    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind
    Wind and solar on Thursday Island
    By Roger Andrews, Energy Matters, Feb 8, 2018
    http://euanmearns.com/wind-and-sola…
    [SEPP Comment: Dated study and no doubt state-of-the-art turbines would do better, but doubtful if they would do the job.]
    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Energy – Electricity Storage
    Battery acid spills at SA star “Green’ hospital – and blackouts as Doctors operate
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 9, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/ba…
    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Vehicles
    China and the imaginary EV “market”
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 10, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/do…

    Tesla´s Hong Kong sales fall off a cliff
    By James Hester, Capital.com, Feb 5, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    https://capital.com/tesla-s-hong-ko…
    Carbon Schemes
    Carbon Capture Nirvana
    By Donn Dears, Power For USA, Feb 2, 2018
    http://www.powerforusa.com/2018/02/…
    [SEPP Comment: McKinsey & Company ignoring basics to promote a political agenda?]
    California Dreaming
    California Water Rationing: Unintended Consequences (rural areas are next)
    By Wayne Lusvardi, Master Resource, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.masterresource.org/cali…
    Other Scientific News
    Study: A barrage of viruses and bacteria is falling from the sky
    By Athony Watts, WUWT, Feb 6, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    Other News that May Be of Interest
    Albert Einstein’s Forgotten Inventions
    By Ross Pomeroy, Real Clear Science, Feb 08, 2018
    https://www.realclearscience.com/bl…

    vAutomated Five-Axis Machining Boosts Productivity
    By Bill Koenig, Advanced Manufacturing, Feb 1, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    http://advancedmanufacturing.org/au…

    BELOW THE BOTTOM LINE:
    NPR Is Seeking A Science Editor. Science Education Not Required.
    By Alex Berezow, ACSH, Feb 5, 2018 [H/t WUWT]
    https://www.acsh.org/news/2018/02/0…

    This is getting serious!
    By Staff Writers, Climate Change Predictions.org, Feb 3, 2018
    http://climatechangepredictions.org…
    “Climatologist Martin Mozny of the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute and colleagues say that the quality of Saaz hops – the delicate variety used to make pilsner lager – has been decreasing in recent years. They say the culprit is climate change in the form of increased air temperature.”
    New Scientist 13 Sep 2009

    ARTICLES:
    1. Climate Change Could Swamp Your Muni-Bond Portfolio
    California localities warn of disaster when suing oil companies. So how come they don’t tell investors?
    By Jay Newman, WSJ, Feb 2, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/climat…

    SUMMARY: The former hedge-fund manager who specialized in sovereign debt describes the apparent deceit of municipalities in California, when issuing bonds. He writes:

    “By the end of this century Oakland, Calif., will be experiencing a ‘100-year flood’ every week. At least that’s what the Oakland city government argued last year, when it filed a lawsuit against several oil companies for contributing to climate change. The city forecasts that rising water levels in the San Francisco Bay will threaten the sewer system and other property ‘with a total replacement cost of between $22 billion and $38 billion.’

    “Suppose you hold some of Oakland’s municipal bonds. This climate apocalypse sounds like a serious risk, right? Yet a recent prospectus for Oakland’s general-obligation bonds shrugs off the threat. ‘The City is unable to predict when seismic events, fires or other natural events, such as sea rise or other impacts of climate change or flooding from a major storm, could occur,’ the prospectus states. And even if such events occur, the city can’t be sure ‘whether they will have a material adverse effect on the business operations or financial condition of the City or the local economy.’

    “Other California localities have told courts one thing and investors another regarding climate change. In a similar lawsuit, San Francisco claims it faces ‘imminent risk of catastrophic storm surge flooding.’ But in a bond offering last year, the city said it is ‘unable to predict whether sea-level rise or other impacts of climate change or flooding . . . will occur.’ San Mateo County claims in another suit that there is a 50% chance that a ‘devastating three-foot flood . . . occurs before 2030.’ The county uses boilerplate similar to San Francisco’s to play down such risks in its communications to bondholders.

    “These jarring inconsistencies have led Exxon Mobil, a target of the lawsuits, to seek judicial relief. In a petition to a Texas court, the company states: ‘The disconnect . . . indicates that the plaintiff municipal governments do not actually believe the allegations in their complaints and that the allegations were not made in good faith.’ Exxon is also asking for permission to depose the lead plaintiff’s lawyer, along with 15 California officials involved in filing the lawsuits.

    “It is possible the California officials were truthful in their attestations about their forecasts. But that means they seriously misled their investors, hoping they could ding deep-pocketed oil companies while continuing to borrow cheaply in the municipal bond markets.

    Stating that the actions of the municipalities and reneging on contracts are not uncommon practice, the author explains that bondholders have little relief because their bonds are usually lumped into class action litigation of long duration and unpredictability. Then, the longtime investor states:

    “But this case may be different thanks to the astonishing presence of contemporaneous, and directly contradictory, legally binding statements. This could prompt the Securities and Exchange Commission to abandon its hands-off approach and require state and local governments to disclose to investors risks arising from climate change, rather than allowing them to equivocate.

    “States and municipalities facing climate-change-associated risks would suffer a significant blow to their credit ratings, according to a Moody’s Investors Service report issued in November 2017. Municipalities that sought big paydays from major oil companies may end up with a bitter second prize—more disclosure and higher borrowing costs.

    “Plaintiffs’ lawyers probably never intended that their war on the fossil-fuel industry would end up shining a light on the perilous state of local public finances. But wars have a funny way of creating unintended consequences. If the unqualified statements made in court about the impact of climate change are even half true—regardless of the cause—the finances of many of California’s coastal cities could soon be underwater.” [Boldface added]
    ________________________________________
    2. America’s Self-Imposed Uranium Shortage
    The U.S. and its allies have plenty, but we still buy from despots.
    By John Barrasso, WSJ, Feb 7, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/americ…

    SUMMARY: The Chairman of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee writes:

    Uranium plays a vital role in maintaining America’s national security. The element powers nearly a quarter of the U.S. Navy’s fleet and keeps the lights on in around 20% of American homes and businesses. So why is the U.S. relying on adversaries to supply it with uranium?

    “The American West—including my home state of Wyoming—is rich in uranium. In 2016, commercial nuclear power plants purchased 50.6 million pounds of uranium, according to the Energy Information Administration. The U.S. could produce tens of millions of pounds a year, relying on friendly countries like Canada or Australia for the remainder. Yet the element often comes from nations like Russia, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. Together, the three supply around 40% of America’s commercial nuclear fuel.

    “Making matters worse, America’s only plant capable of preparing natural uranium for enrichment was idled last year. All uranium mined in the U.S. must now leave the country for processing in places like France and Canada. Then it is reimported for use in domestic nuclear power plants.

    “The federal government has made the situation worse. Since the 1990s, the Energy Department has maintained a stockpile of uranium from decommissioned nuclear weapons. For the past decade, the agency has actually bartered uranium away in exchange for services from contractors. The contractors then sell the uranium.

    “If the department sold its uranium directly, the funds would go to the U.S. Treasury, not to the agency’s coffers. This bartering scheme effectively circumvents Congress’s power of the purse, which is why the Government Accountability Office called it illegal in 2006 and 2011. The department kept doing it anyway.

    “This is happening while the U.S. is producing uranium at the lowest levels since the early 1950s. None of that matters to Washington. Each year since 2011, Energy has bartered away more uranium than the U.S. has produced.

    “In the past two years, the department has given contractors more than double the amount of uranium that America generates. Even though U.S. producers suffer harm from this racket, they don’t have standing to challenge the government in court. The result is that American uranium producers now supply less than 5% of American nuclear fuel, and the number of American uranium workers was cut in half between 2011 and 2016.”

    Arguing that DOE policies benefit foreign governments at the expense of US uranium producers, the senator concludes:

    “At a minimum, the administration should pursue policies that promote robust American uranium production. America is on the cusp of losing its ability to produce its own nuclear fuel. The administration can’t let that happen.”

    __________________________________________
    The Week That Was: 2018-02-03 (February 3, 2018)
    Brought to You by SEPP
    The Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

     

    Quote of the Week.
    The sun, with all those planets revolving around it and dependent on it, can still ripen a bunch of grapes as if it had nothing else in the universe to do. – Galileo Galilei

    Number of the Week: 16% Paid

    THIS WEEK:
    By Ken Haapala, President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP)

    39 Years of Data: The “Global Temperature Report” for December 2017 by the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) contained an illuminating global map. The map showed the global temperature change in the lower troposphere as calculated from satellite measurements from December 1979 to December 2017 – 39 years. These calculations are independently verified by direct measurements of temperatures from weather balloons. These are the most comprehensive temperature data compiled, far more inclusive than surface-air data, taken about shoulder height off the ground, largely in westernized regions of the global land mass. Further, it is in the atmosphere where the greenhouse gas effect occurs, not at shoulder level. [Satellite data do not include the region directly over the poles.]

    These atmospheric data reveal a pronounced warming over the Arctic, as one would expect from greenhouse gas theory. However, except for the region known as Queen Maud Land, roughly south of Africa, which shows a pronounced warming, the bulk of Antarctica shows a cooling, or no change. This is contrary to what one would expect from the greenhouse gas theory, as expressed in the 1979 Charney Report produced by the US National Academy of Sciences.

    Further, the bulk of the atmosphere over the tropics does not show a strong pronounced warming, contrary to what the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) asserted in its Second Assessment report, claiming it had detected a distinct human influence (human fingerprint) on climate from greenhouse gases (SAR, 1995).

    The atmosphere continues to contradict the findings of the IPCC, and it is past time to re-evaluate the assumptions made by it, its supporters, and its models. Also, when will the IPCC advocates in NOAA and NASA admit that greenhouse gas warming occurs in the atmosphere, not on or near the surface of the earth? NOAA and NASA continue to undermine their own credibility by their continued use of surface (surface-air) temperatures and by their manipulation of historic data, producing a false warming trend. See links under Challenging the Orthodoxy, Lowering Standards, and Measurement Issues — Atmosphere

    Solar Changes: The Canadian Center of Science and Education published a paper by researchers at National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences estimating changing solar activity during the Holocene period, going back almost 12,000 years. They do so by estimating sunspot activity from 9455 BC to 1895 AD. Direct observations of sunspots go back about 4 centuries. Using a mathematical technique called wavelet transform, the researchers use proxy data, such as carbon 14 and beryllium 10 isotopes, to estimate solar activity to the earlier period. In so doing, they build on the work of others who have shown variation in solar activity relates to global and regional climate change.

    Their analysis indicates a cyclical variation in solar activity of roughly 500 years, with the amplitude of solar activity varying over time. For example, about 11,000 years ago there was a pronounced increase in solar activity, as well as about 4000 years ago, and in recent years. About 8,000 years ago there was a pronounced decrease in solar activity, as well as about 500 years ago, which corresponds to the low solar activity observed by early astronomers using telescopes (Galileo and others). [Note, a 500-year solar activity cycle that includes sunspot cycles with changing amplitude, is not inconsistent with the 1,500-year cycle described in the book by Fred Singer and Dennis Avery.]

    The changing amplitudes of solar activity indicate that long-term changes in climate are influenced by solar activity. However, it is important to note that these climate changes do not occur with each solar cycle, but with a series of solar cycles with an increasing or decreasing solar activity. Consequently, those who may believe that a single cycle of low solar activity will result in a cooling climate will probably be disappointed.

    The oceans hold a tremendous amount of heat, and there is no logical reason to assume that a single solar cycle of low activity will result in the release most of this heat. It would take several such cycles before a pronounced climate change is observed.

    It is interesting to note that the graph of the solar activity shows that currently, solar activity is comparable to that of 4,000 years ago and was exceeded about 11,000 years ago. No doubt, the paper will be criticized in the Western journals, because it indicates that carbon dioxide (CO2) is not the primary driver of climate change. See links under Science: Is the Sun Rising?

    One Model, One Run? One of the criticisms appearing in Western Journals of global climate models is the inability of models to track changing temperature through the Holocene, the past 11,500 years or so. A paper published in Nature, states:

    “Cooling during most of the past two millennia has been widely recognized and has been inferred to be the dominant global temperature trend of the past 11,700 years (the Holocene epoch). However, long-term cooling has been difficult to reconcile with global forcing, and climate models consistently simulate long-term warming. The divergence between simulations and reconstructions emerges primarily for northern mid-latitudes, for which pronounced cooling has been inferred from marine and coastal records using multiple approaches. Here we show that temperatures reconstructed from sub-fossil pollen from 642 sites across North America and Europe closely match simulations, and that long-term warming, not cooling, defined the Holocene until around 2,000 years ago. The reconstructions indicate that evidence of long-term cooling was limited to North Atlantic records.”

    Obviously, there are major inconsistencies between this paper and the one discussed above. But aside from the data limited to one paleoclimate proxy, pollen, unspecified, the real issue is with the simulation of climate using one climate model (probably run once because there was no mention of multiple runs or averages) and concluding that these efforts:

    “… reinforce the notion that climate models can adequately simulate climates for periods other than the present-day.”

    In his February 2, 2016, written testimony to the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, John Christy showed that only one global climate model closely approximated observations of global mid-tropospheric temperature variations, the Russian model by the Institute of Numerical Mathematics. All the other models overestimated the warming of the mid- troposphere by 2.5 to 3 times.

    To assert that the Nature paper makes a “hasty generalization” is polite. See links under Models v. Observations and
    http://docs.house.gov/meetings/SY/S…
    (pp. 12 & 13)

    Svensmark Hypothesis Supported? Perhaps unknowingly, Science Magazine, gave support to the Svensmark Hypothesis that cosmic rays can cause cloudiness when it carried a paper on ultrafine aerosols. Those criticizing the Svensmark Hypothesis claim the products of cosmic rays hitting the atmosphere are too small for affect cloud formation. The new paper is titled: “Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles.’

    The summary of the paper states:

    “Up with ultrafine aerosol particles
    “Ultrafine aerosol particles (smaller than 50 nanometers in diameter) have been thought to be too small to affect cloud formation. Fan et al. show that this is not the case. They studied the effect of urban pollution transported into the otherwise nearly pristine atmosphere of the Amazon. Condensational growth of water droplets around the tiny particles releases latent heat, thereby intensifying atmospheric convection. Thus, anthropogenic ultrafine aerosol particles may exert a more important influence on cloud formation processes than previously believed.”

    Of course, there is no mention of the Svensmark Hypothesis. See links under Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?

    CEI Letter: Last week’s and prior TWTWs have discussed problems associated with the litigation filed by municipalities such as New York, San Francisco, and Oakland against oil companies for selling petroleum which creates CO2 when burned. These and other jurisdictions have made specific claims of future damage from global warming, particularly from rising sea levels. The claims are highly questionable, lacking physical evidence that CO2 is causing increased sea level rise and other claimed damages. But, they have been made in court filings.

    As discussed last week, the 1933 and 1934 securities laws are taken seriously by the US courts. Errors of omission are dealt with severely, as are errors of commission. Yet, in their securities filings, these municipalities are “glossing over” any harms from CO2-caused global warming.

    On February 1, attorneys with the Competitive Enterprise Institute (CEI) notified the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) of possible securities related fraud as to omission of, or glossing over, climate risks, which the municipalities in California specifically state in their litigation filings as being damaged by climate change. In CEI’s letter to LeeAnn Ghazil Gaunt; Chief of the Public Finance Abuse Unit of the SEC, the opening paragraph states:

    “It has come to our attention that various municipalities expect substantial future financial harm, but have either explicitly disclaimed the ability to determine such harms or at the least omitted these potential harms when informing bond investors. We wish to notify the SEC of these potential problems so that they can be properly investigated with appropriate action taken to protect investors.”

    Unfortunately, the taxpayers in these jurisdictions may suffer from higher bonding costs and insurance premiums long after the politicians are gone.

    Please note, SEPP has joined CEI on several activities objecting to the EPA Endangerment Finding, but was not involved with this letter. See links under Litigation Issues

    Trump State of the Union: The State of the Union address by President Trump may have been remarkable for at least two reasons: 1) climate policy and 2) energy policy.

    Perhaps the most remarkable item in the address and its official rebuttal by Rep. Joe Kennedy (D-Mass.) was the failure to mention dire global warming / climate change, drastic sea level rise, and the many ills that have been prophesized if we continue to burn fossil fuels and emit carbon dioxide. Is a new realization occurring that we will not overheat or drown in acidic waters? Probably not. The alarmists will continue to attack President Trump for his climate policies and gently criticize Kennedy for his oversight. After all, decades of carbon dioxide fear cannot be overcome with a single speech.

    For the first time since President George W. Bush asserted “America is addicted to oil” in 2006, the State of the Union address asserted that the US has ample fossil fuel resources and will continue to develop them to advance its economic and foreign policy goals. See Article # 2 and links under Change in US Administrations Energy Issues – Non-US

    Number of the Week: 16% Paid. The signers of the Paris Agreement were to pay “dues” on January 1, 2018, to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Only 31 of the 197 countries signing did so. The 84% who did not included China, Brazil, France, Germany and the US. In March, the US State Department budget eliminated funds under the Global Climate Change Initiative, which previously had about $6.4 million. About 20% of the UNFCCC operating budget. See links under After Paris!

    NEWS YOU CAN USE:

    Science: Is the Sun Rising?

    Chinese Astronomers Discover 500-Year Solar Cycle
    By Staff Writers, GWPF, Jan 30, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/chinese-ast…
    Link to paper: Quasi ~500-year Cycle Signals in Solar Activity
    By Lihua Ma, Zhiqiang Yin & Yanben Han, Earth Science Research, Jan 24, 2018
    http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/inde…

    Commentary: Is the Sun Rising?

    Tiny bits of pollution could strengthen storms
    By Chelsea Harvey, E&E News, Jan 26, 2018
    https://www.eenews.net/climatewire/…
    Link to paper: Substantial convection and precipitation enhancements by ultrafine aerosol particles
    By Jiwen Fan, et al. Science, Jan 26, 2018 [H/t Howard Hayden]
    http://science.sciencemag.org/conte…
    [SEPP Comment: Independent support of the Svensmark hypothesis? Nucleation sites, just like ions in cosmic ray tracks?]

    Cosmic Rays, Magnetic Fields and Climate Change
    By Euan Mearns, Energy Matters, Jan 29, 2018
    http://euanmearns.com/cosmic-rays-m…

    Exploding stars have a link to climate change
    By Staff Writers, Laboratory News, Jan 22, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    https://www.labnews.co.uk/news/expl…

    Censorship

    Reef Row Scientist Peter Ridd Snubs University Gag order
    By Graham Lloyd, The Australian, Via GWPF, Feb 1, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/reef-row-sc…

    Professor Peter Ridd Standing Up For Scientific Integrity Against James Cook University
    By John Roskam, Institute of Public Affairs, AU, Feb 1, 2018
    https://ipa.org.au/publications-ipa…

    JCU bans Prof Peter Ridd from criticizing scientific institutions. Defiant, he refuses, fights on!
    JCU is trying (and failing) to gag Peter Ridd from discussing why we can’t trust scientific organisations
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Feb 2, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/02/jc…

    The power of grant money – on display at James Cook University
    By Don Aikin, WUWT, Jan 29, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/01…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy — NIPCC

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Physical Science
    Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2013
    https://www.heartland.org/media-lib…
    Summary:
    http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/…

    Climate Change Reconsidered II: Biological Impacts
    Idso, Idso, Carter, and Singer, Lead Authors/Editors, 2014
    http://www.nipccreport.org/reports/…
    Summary:
    https://www.heartland.org/media-lib…

    Why Scientists Disagree About Global Warming
    The NIPCC Report on the Scientific Consensus
    By Craig D. Idso, Robert M. Carter, and S. Fred Singer, NIPCC, Nov 23, 2015
    http://climatechangereconsidered.or…
    Download with no charge
    https://www.heartland.org/policy-do…

    Nature, Not Human Activity, Rules the Climate
    S. Fred Singer, Editor, NIPCC, 2008
    http://www.sepp.org/publications/ni…

    Challenging the Orthodoxy

    John McLean: The IPCC Wobbles Over Climate Models
    By John McLean, GWPF, Jan 27, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/john-mclean…
    “It is clear from the above that the IPCC knows that climate models perform badly, the exact reasons are unclear, and that accurate modelling is likely to be extremely challenging, if not impossible.
    “The crucial flaw with all IPCC reports is that such reservations are not clearly stated when announcing estimated future temperatures, mankind’s influence on temperature and on extreme weather events, nor I believe can it be expected when models are used to derive a supposed preindustrial temperature.”

    Lamprell, Carillion and Offshore Wind Costs
    By John Constable, GWPF, Jan 31, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/lamprell-ca…
    “A recent market warning issued by Lamprell, a major construction firm involved in offshore wind, sheds important new light on claimed cost reductions in that sector.”
    “One of the many interesting things that could emerge from the Carillion investigation will be whether aggressive and unrealistic underbidding for grid infrastructure, in relation to offshore wind and elsewhere, was a part of its troubles, and if so what bearing this might have on the generally optimistic assessment of costs of rewiring the United Kingdom in order to accommodate a high share of wind and solar power.”

    Defending the Orthodoxy

    Scientists pinpoint how ocean acidification weakens coral skeletons
    How corals grow is the key
    By Staff Writers, NSF, Jan 29, 2018
    https://www.nsf.gov/discoveries/dis…
    It all comes down to aragonite.
    Coral skeletons are made of aragonite, a form of calcium carbonate. Corals grow their skeletons upward by stacking bundles of aragonite crystals on top of each other.
    When carbon dioxide is absorbed by seawater, it’s harder for corals to accrete their aragonite skeletons.
    [SEPP Comment: No discussion of pH!]

    How to reduce heat extremes by 3C
    By Staff Writers, Sydney, Australia (SPX), Jan 30, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/H…
    Link to paper: Land radiative management as contributor to regional-scale climate adaptation and mitigation
    By Sonia Seneviratne, et al. Nature Geoscience, Jan 29, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41…
    [SEPP Comment: But the Urban Heat Island effect is ignored by the IPCC.]

    Radioactivity from oil and gas wastewater persists in Pennsylvania stream sediments
    By Staff Writers, Durham NC (SPX), Jan 23, 2018
    http://www.oilgasdaily.com/reports/…
    Sources of Radium Accumulation in Stream Sediments near Disposal Sites in Pennsylvania: Implications for Disposal of Conventional Oil and Gas Wastewater
    Link to paper: Sources of Radium Accumulation in Stream Sediments near Disposal Sites in Pennsylvania: Implications for Disposal of Conventional Oil and Gas Wastewater
    By Nancy E. Lauer, Nathaniel R. Warner, and Avner Vengosh, Environmental Science & Technology, Jan 4, 2018
    http://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs…
    [Researcher Avner Vengosh said:] “Conventional oil and gas wastewaters also contain radioactivity, and their disposal to the environment must be stopped, too.”

    Questioning the Orthodoxy

    Illustrating the failure of the climate movement – in one graph
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Jan 29, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/01…

    What are, in fact, the grounds for concern about global warming?
    By Javier and Andy May, WUWT, Jan 30, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/01…

    Matt Ridley: Technology Will Help the Environment Flourish
    Speech by Matt Ridley, Hansard, Via GWPF, Feb 1, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/matt-ridley…

    New Scare Science: Global Sea Levels Rose A Staggering 3.1 Inches (1.42 mm/yr) During 1958-2014
    By Kenneth Richard, No Tricks Zone, Feb 1,2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/02/01/…

    Polar bear specialists double-down on message of future starving bears
    By Susan Crockford, Polar Bear Science, Feb 1,2018
    https://polarbearscience.com/2018/0…

    After Paris!

    France, Germany, US among 166 countries late on UN climate dues
    Four out of five countries missed the agreed date for contributions to UN Climate Change, including some who claim to be leaders on climate change
    By Megan Darby, Climate Home News, Jan 25, 2018
    http://www.climatechangenews.com/20…

    Depak Lal: India Should Join U.S. and Abandon Paris Agreement
    By DepakLal, Business Standard, Via GWPF, Feb 2, 2018
    https://www.thegwpf.com/depak-lal-i…

    Change in US Administrations

    Trump Delivered The First SOTU In 8 Years To Not Mention Global Warming
    By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller, Jan 30, 2018
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/01/30/t…

    Democrats Ignore Climate Change In State Of The Union Rebuttal
    Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) was the only one to bring up global warming after the second-hottest year on record.
    By Alexander C. Kaufman, HuffPost, Jan 31, 2018
    http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/ent…

    Trump celebrates end of wars on ‘American energy’ and ‘clean coal’
    By Josh Siegel, Washington Examiner, Jan 30, 2018
    http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/t…
    Link to report: Monthly Energy Review,
    By Staff Writers, EIA, January 2018
    https://www.eia.gov/totalenergy/dat…

    Problems in the Orthodoxy

    EU’s air pollution pariahs summoned to Brussels
    By Sam Morgan, Euractiv, Jan 19, 2018
    https://www.euractiv.com/section/ai…
    “Environment ministers from some of the EU’s worst air pollution offenders have been summoned to Brussels for an end-of-month meeting with the European Commission, where they will have to answer some tough questions.
    “EU environment chief Karmenu Vella has invited ministers from Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the United Kingdom, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to come and discuss air pollution and what they are doing to tackle it on 30 January.”

    Adjusted Upwards…German CO2 Equivalent Emissions Rise (Again) In 2016…No Reduction Since 2009!
    By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Jan 27, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/01/27/…

    Why A Cold Week In January Shows Renewable Energy Cannot Do It All
    Building a 100% renewable – and affordable – energy system is challenging for any country
    By Matt Rooney, Huff Post, Jan 25, 2018
    http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/ent…

    Seeking a Common Ground

    Eucalyptus trees cope fine with extreme heatwaves, defy climate models, survive 50C temps
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Jan 31, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/01/eu…

    Review of Recent Scientific Articles by CO2 Science

    Phenotypic Adaptation of an Arctic Copepod to Ocean Acidification
    Bailey, A., De Wit, P., Thor, P., Browman, H.I., Bjelland, R., Shema, S., Fields, D.M., Runge, J.A., Thompson, C. and Hop, H. 2017b. Regulation of gene expression is associated with tolerance of the Arctic copepod Calanus glacialis to CO2-acidified sea water. Ecology and Evolution 7: 7145-7160. Feb 2, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…

    The Resilience of a Coralline Red Algae to Ocean Acidification
    Donald, H.K., Ries, J.B., Stewart, J.A., Fowell, S.E. and Foster, G.L. 2017. Boron isotope sensitivity to seawater pH change in a species of Neogoniolithon coralline red alga. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 217: 240-253. Jan 31, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…

    The Enhanced Performance of a Fast-growing Tree Species Under Elevated CO2
    Kumar, S., Sreeharsha, R.V., Mudalkar, S., Sarashetti, P.M. and Reddy, A.R. 2017. Molecular insights into photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism in Jatropha curcas grown under elevated CO2 using transcriptome sequencing and assembly. Scientific Reports 7: 11066, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-11312-y. Jan 26, 2018
    http://www.co2science.org/articles/…

    Models v. Observations

    New Paper: “Reconciling divergent trends and millennial variations in Holocene temperatures”
    Guest post by David Middleton, WUWT, Feb 1, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/02…
    Link to paper: Reconciling divergent trends and millennial variations in Holocene temperatures
    By Jeremiah Marsicek, et al. Nature, Jan 31, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/nat…

    Measurement Issues — Surface

    Met Office’s 5-Year Forecast
    By Paul Homewood, Not , Feb 1, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…

    “Why the Met Office is so obsessed with 19th century climate is a mystery.”

    Measurement Issues — Atmosphere

    UAH Global Temperature Update for January, 2018: +0.26 deg. C
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Feb 1, 2018
    http://www.drroyspencer.com/2018/02…
    December 2017 Map and Graph
    Global Temperature Report, Earth System Science Center, UAH
    https://www.nsstc.uah.edu/climate/…
    Dec 1978 to Dec 2017 Trend, Lower Troposphere
    https://www.nsstc.uah.edu/climate/2…

    Changing Seas

    Latest Data Show NO SEA LEVEL RISE ACCELERATION Since 1993…Coasts: Less Than 2 Millimeters Rise Annually!
    Satellite Data Show No Acceleration In Sea Level Rise Over Past 25 Years
    By P Gosselin, No Tricks Zone, Jan 31, 2018
    http://notrickszone.com/2018/01/31/…

    Changing Cryosphere – Land / Sea Ice

    Greenland’s recent temperature drop does not disprove global warming
    Unfortunately, the planet is still getting warmer.
    By Charlotte Price Persson, Science Nordic, Jan 29, 2018 [H/t Paul Homewood]
    http://sciencenordic.com/greenland%…
    Link to paper: Contrasting temperature trends across the ice-free part of Greenland
    By Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Mojtaba Karami, Birger Ulf Hansen, Sebastian Westermann & Bo Elberling, Scientific Reports, Jan 25, 2018
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41…
    From the abstract: “Here we quantify trends in satellite-derived land surface temperatures and modelled air temperatures, validated against observations, across the entire ice-free Greenland. Focus is on the past 30 years, to characterize significant changes and potentially vulnerable regions at a 1 km resolution.”
    [SEPP Comment, No discussion of atmospheric temperatures, where the greenhouse gases are. As noted in the article, satellite derived surface temperatures have issues with cloudiness.]

    Greenland Is Getting Colder–New Study
    By Paul Homewood, Not a Lot of People Know That, Jan 29, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…
    “When you look at the yearly average, the ice-free parts of Greenland show a slight drop in temperature between 2001 and 2015. With swings in temperature from year to year.”
    [SEPP Comment: See links immediately above.]

    Agriculture Issues & Fear of Famine

    U.S. Corn Yield a New Record – Again
    Global warming be damned — full speed ahead on the Maize Train.
    By Roy Spencer, His Blog, Jan 29, 2018
    http://www.drroyspencer.com/2018/01…

    Lowering Standards

    American Meteorological Society asks Trump to check government agencies for climate change information
    By Brett Samuels, The Hill, Jan 31, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    [SEPP Comment: The AMS has yet to produce “credible and scientifically validated” evidence that CO2 is the primary cause of recent warming.]

    The Greatest Scientific Fraud Of All Time — Part XVIII
    By Francis Menton, Manhattan Contrarian, Jan 29, 2018
    http://manhattancontrarian.com/blog…
    “Those reports led Politifact to put some questions in writing to NOAA. They received a response, the gist of which was ‘our algorithm is working as designed’ — without any information as to how or why the specific adjustments were made, nor any access to code or methods to enable the adjustments to be replicated.”
    [SEPP Comment: Further discussion of downward adjustment of historic temperatures by NOAA & NASA-GISS.]

    Communicating Better to the Public – Exaggerate, or be Vague?

    EU tries to measure ‘energy poverty’ – without defining it
    By Peter Teffer, EUObserver, Jan 30, 2018 [H/t Real Clear Energy]
    https://euobserver.com/energy/14075…

    Communicating Better to the Public – Make things up.

    Telegraph Repeats Fake “40000 Deaths Caused By Air Pollution” Claim
    By Paul Homewood Not a Lot of People Know That, Feb 2, 2018
    https://notalotofpeopleknowthat.wor…

    Expanding the Orthodoxy

    The UN Wants Your Input, Providing You Support Climate Action
    Guest essay by Eric Worrall, WUWT, Jan 31, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/01…

    Questioning European Green

    Corin Taylor: Fracking is our chance to meet the need for gas
    By Corin Taylor, Yorkshire Post, Jan 30, 2018 [H/t GWPF]
    https://www.yorkshirepost.co.uk/new…
    “Corin Taylor is director of UK Onshore Oil and Gas.”

    Funding Issues

    Trump administration yanks funding for “Climate-Related Fellowships”
    By Anthony Watts, WUWT, Jan 30, 2018
    https://wattsupwiththat.com/2018/01…
    Link to article: Prestigious Climate-Related Fellowships Rescinded
    Reduced program is one of several that usually support climate science postdoctoral research but have eliminated or suspended funding opportunities.
    By Gabriel Popkin, EOS, Jan 19, 2018
    https://eos.org/articles/prestigiou…

    Litigation Issues

    SEC Should Investigate California Cities for Securities Fraud Related to Climate Risks
    By Sam Kazman, Devin Watkins, CEI, Feb 1, 2018
    https://cei.org/content/sec-investi…
    In pdf: https://cei.org/sites…

    Cities’ Global Warming Lawsuits Raise ‘Serious Questions Of Bond Fraud,’ Attorneys Say
    By Michael Bastasch, Daily Caller, Feb 1, 2018
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/02/01/c…

    EPA and other Regulators on the March

    EPA reconsidering whether to cut off Chesapeake newspaper’s funding
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Jan 30, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…
    [SEPP Comment: Is the newspaper another EPA promotional activity?]

    Trump’s EPA Targets Academics For Hiding Data Used To Ban Popular Pesticide
    By Chris White, Daily Caller, Jan 26, 2018
    http://dailycaller.com/2018/01/26/e…
    [SEPP Comment: An item of concern, except the data was used to formulate public policy.]

    Energy Issues – Non-US

    U.S. on Track to Top Russia as World’s Largest Oil Producer, Upending Global Trade and Geopolitics
    U.S. energy exports now compete with Middle East oil for buyers in Asia, with breathtaking economic and political impacts
    By Staff Writers, Haaretz and Reuters, Jan 29, 2018
    https://www.haaretz.com/us-news/u-s…

    Norway Aiming For Oil & Gas Output To Reach Record Highs By ~2022
    By James Ayre, Clean Technica, Jan 21, 2018
    https://cleantechnica.com/2018/01/2…

    The Shape I’m In – Rising Canadian Production, Takeaway Constraints And WCS Price Discounts, Part 2
    By Peter Howard, RBN Energy, Jan 30, 2018
    https://rbnenergy.com/the-shape-im-…

    Energy Issues – Australia

    Mystery: Australian electricity costs rise six times faster than wages – up another 12%
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Jan 31, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/01/my…

    Melbourne: 42,000 homes in dark, no fans left at Kmart. Power outages due to “secret” air conditioners?
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Jan 29, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/01/me…

    Political Vandals: Victoria, the diesel state, bans, hides, cheap cleaner gas, blames fuses, air conditioners
    By Jo Nova, Her Blog, Jan 29, 2018
    http://joannenova.com.au/2018/01/po…

    Energy Issues — US

    Oil Boom Gives the U.S. a New Edge in Energy and Diplomacy
    By Clifford Kraus, NYT, Jan 28, 2018 [H/t Myron Ebell]
    https://www.nytimes.com/2018/01/28/…
    [SEPP Comment: Remarkable article for the NYT.]

    Time to end quixotic opposition to American energy
    By C. Boyden Gray, The Hill, Jan 29, 2018
    http://thehill.com/opinion/energy-e…

    Report: Trump Wants Deep Cuts in Clean Energy Programs
    By Darrell Proctor, Power Mag, Jan 31, 2018
    http://www.powermag.com/report-trum…

    The Promise and Challenge of U.S. Energy Infrastructure
    By Craig Stevens, Real Clear Energy, Jan 31, 2018
    https://www.realclearenergy.org/art…
    “Craig Stevens is the spokesperson for Grow America’s Infrastructure.”

    Washington’s Control of Energy

    Cold winters are testing the limits of US energy grid
    By Jordan McGillis, The Hill, Jan 29, 2018 [H/t ICECAP]
    http://thehill.com/opinion/energy-e…
    [SEPP Comment: The article discusses the Jones Act, passed in 1920, to protect U.S. domestic shipping. It makes shipping from one state to another prohibitively expensive by requiring that intrastate shipping be done in US-registered vessels.]

    Interior rolls back oil drilling policies for federal land
    By Timothy Cama, The Hill, Feb 1, 2018
    http://thehill.com/policy/energy-en…

    Oil and Natural Gas – the Future or the Past?

    America’s oil exports are booming — and lifting prices
    By Matt Egan, CNN, Jan 29, 2018
    http://money.cnn.com/2018/01/28/inv…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Solar and Wind

    Sensing but Not Hearing: The Problem of Wind Turbine Noise (Interview with acoustician Steven Cooper, AU)
    By Sherri Lange, Master Resource, Feb 2, 2018
    https://www.masterresource.org/wind…
    [SEPP Comment: Lengthy post addressing a serious, but inaudible, issue with industrial wind.]

    Energy & Environmental Newsletter: January 29, 2018
    By John Droz, Jr. Master Resource, Jan 29, 2018
    https://www.masterresource.org/alli…

    Willcox-area wind farm under investigation for bat, eagle deaths
    By Tony Davis. Arizona Daily StaR, Jan 22, 2018
    http://tucson.com/news/local/willco…

    Alternative, Green (“Clean”) Energy — Other

    EPA chief riles ethanol advocates with call for biofuels policy reform
    By Staff Writers, Reuters, Feb 1, 2018 [H/t Cooler Heads]
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-…

    ‘Tesla of the canals’: Netherlands and Belgium to launch world’s first zero-emissions self-piloting container barges
    Each fully-electric boat will transport 24 containers weighing up to 425 tonnes
    By Tom Embury-Dennis, The Independent, Jan 25, 2018
    http://www.independent.co.uk/news/w…

    Health, Energy, and Climate

    ‘Settled Science’ Just Got Blown Up
    Editorial, IBD, Feb 2, 2018
    https://www.investors.com/politics/…

    Environmental Industry

    Big green readies dozens of lawsuits as only ‘antidote’ for Trump EPA
    By John Siciliano, Washington Examiner, Jan 27, 2018
    http://www.washingtonexaminer.com/b…

    Other News that May Be of Interest

    Israeli fossils are the oldest modern humans ever found outside of Africa
    Jaw and teeth mark Homo sapiens’ early arrival on the Arabian Peninsula.
    By Ewen Callaway, Nature, Jan 25, 2018 [H/t Toshio Fujita]
    https://www.nature.com/articles/d41…
    [No link to paper]

    Politicizing the environment is hurting its cause
    By Martin Morse Wooster. Philanthropy Daily, Jan 25, 2018
    https://www.philanthropydaily.com/p…

    BELOW THE BOTTOM LINE:
    Caterpillers on the march!
    By Staff Writers, CC?? Jan 31, 2018
    http://climatechangepredictions.org…
    ”Caterpillars Devour 45 Towns in Liberia: Climate Change Possibly to Blame. In the aftermath of another extended rainy season, Liberia has experienced its worst caterpillar plague in three decades.
    “Tens of millions of the black-haired creatures have swarmed farms, devastated crops and contaminated several major waterways.”

    Scientific explanation
    CCC? Feb 1, 2018
    http://climatechangepredictions.org…
    “’Well, the wacky weather could get even wackier. What we’re seeing is that the jet stream and the polar vortex are becoming unstable. Instability of historic proportions. Now think of the polar vortex as a bucket, a swirling bucket of cold air. However, the walls are weakening.”
    “’Cold air is spilling out, spilling out over the walls of the bucket. And the question is, why? Why is this polar vortex weakening? We think it’s because of the gradual heating up of the North Pole. The North Pole is melting.’”
    New York City College physics professor Michio Kaku, interview on CBS, This Morning, 13 Feb 2014.

    ARTICLES:
    1. China Creates Nuclear Powerhouse
    Two of the country’s largest nuclear-power firms remerge in effort to boost market power and efficiency.
    By Wayne Ma, WSJ, Jan 31, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/china-…

    SUMMARY: The reporter states:
    “The country’s state-asset regulator said Wednesday it approved the merger of China National Nuclear Corp., which develops and produces nuclear power, and China Nuclear Engineering and Construction Group, which builds nuclear-power plants.

    “The megamerger would create a company with combined assets of about $100 billion and a workforce of more than 140,000 people.

    “The merger has been in the works since at least March 2017, when the publicly listed units of both companies each said their parents were planning to restructure. The two companies split up in a previous round of government-sponsored restructuring in 1999.

    “Beijing has been systematically combining and strengthening its state-owned enterprises over the past two years to boost their market power and efficiency. China’s two largest steelmakers merged in 2016, while its top coal miner and one of its biggest power producers combined less than a year later.

    “By merging the two companies, Beijing hopes vertical integration can reduce costs and make its nuclear giant more competitive, especially overseas, where it hopes to follow in the footsteps of other Chinese firms’ success abroad in winning contracts for rail and power-grid construction and operation.

    “China is the fastest-growing country for nuclear power as Beijing ramps up capacity as part of a plan to diversify beyond its reliance on coal-fired power plants. Coal-fired plants make up more than 60% of the country’s power mix, according to China’s National Energy Administration, and are a main source of air pollution.

    “China had 36 gigawatts of installed nuclear-power-generation capacity last year, or about 2% of total power-generation capacity, according to the energy administration. Beijing has set an ambitious target to reach 58 gigawatts of nuclear capacity by 2020 and analysts say it could target more than 200 gigawatts by 2030. By comparison, U.S. nuclear capacity was about 100 gigawatts last year, though most of that capacity was built before 1990.”

    1. Drilled, Baby, Drilled
      A decade ago Barack Obama mocked Sarah Palin. Who was right?
      Editorial, WSJ, Feb 1, 2018
      https://www.wsj.com/articles/drille…SUMMARY: After discussing how the previous administration mocked the political slogan “drill, baby, drill, the editorial states:“The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reported Thursday that U.S. crude oil production exceeded 10 million barrels a day for the first time since 1970. That’s double the five million barrels produced in 2008, thanks to the boom in, well, drilling, baby.The EIA summary puts it this way: ‘U.S. crude oil production has increased significantly over the past 10 years, driven mainly by production from tighter rock formations including shale and other fine-grained rock using horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing to improve efficiency.’”“The magnitude of the boom is remarkable. The gusher has pushed the U.S. close to overtaking Saudi Arabia and Russia as the world’s leading oil producer. In 2006 the U.S. imported 12.9 million barrels a day of crude and petroleum products. By last October that was down to 2.5 million a day. Some gimmick.“This translates into greater energy security as the U.S. is less dependent on foreign oil sources. Donald Trump calls it ‘energy dominance,’ which implies that the U.S. wants to husband its supplies like gold at Fort Knox. The reality is we want to produce and sell what the market will bear, including exports to willing buyers around the world.“Thanks to Congress’s deal with Mr. Obama in 2015 when Republicans extended wind and solar subsidies in return for lifting the oil export ban, the U.S. exported some 1.5 million barrels of oil a day in November. Some readers may recall that Heritage Action instructed Congress to vote no, and Breitbart called the bill ‘a total and complete sell-out of the American people.’ Perhaps even they can now see that trading temporary subsidies for a permanent change in export law was shrewd and good for the country.

      “Also striking is how quickly the oil and gas industry has recovered from the oil price plunge of 2015-2016. Previous price declines led to multiple bankruptcies and bank failures. This time drillers adapted quickly, took the rig count down fast, and cut costs. America’s flexible private capital markets helped the companies ride out the price trough, and now producers, investors and lenders are reaping the benefits of the oil price rebound to $69 a barrel.

      “And don’t forget the fracking boom in natural gas. EIA says U.S. gas production increased by some 50% from January 2010 to November 2017, reducing carbon emissions and heating prices. Thanks to new export terminals, the U.S. is now selling liquefied natural gas around the world. This has the potential to compete with Russian gas so Western Europe doesn’t have to succumb to Vladimir Putin’s periodic energy blackmail. Unleashing U.S. energy is Donald Trump’s best Russia containment strategy.

      “It’s worth stressing some of the policy lessons in all this. The first is that the best response to energy shocks is to let the market adjust to the price signals. As oil prices soared in the latter half of the last decade, politicians panicked and rushed to ban certain light bulbs, and subsidize and mandate cellulosic ethanol and other energy fads. The media fed the panic and cheered the politicians on. We were back at ‘peak oil’ and the end of fossil fuels.

      “Yet American ingenuity was already discovering the solution for high prices in the shale plays of North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Texas and elsewhere. These drillers could move fast because they had the support of private capital and could lease private land. The frackers were also largely regulated by the states, which meant even the Obama Administration couldn’t stop them.

      “This is a familiar American story of invention and wealth creation that benefits everyone, but it never would have happened if central planners in Washington had to approve it. That’s the most important lesson.”

    3. Big Oil Finds Going Green Is Hard to Do
    Shell has made the clearest bet on a lower-carbon future but that may cause headaches in the near term
    By Nathaniel Taplin, WSJ, Feb 1, 2018
    https://www.wsj.com/articles/big-oi…

    SUMMARY: The journalist states:

    “Thanks to better global growth and OPEC’s grit, oil is testing $70 a barrel again. Oil titans like Royal Dutch Shell RDS.B -2.99% are reveling in the unexpected bounty: the firm posted strong fourth-quarter results Thursday showing earnings up a cool 147% compared with a year earlier.

    “Not bad for an oil firm supposedly entering the twilight years of the petroleum age.

    “Still, oil’s resurgence raises some interesting questions. Of all the big oil firms, Shell has made the clearest bet on a lower-carbon, more-electric future—its roughly $50 billion purchase of BG Group in 2016 vaulted it into the top echelons of global natural-gas producers. In recent weeks, it has forked out for British power company First Utility—about $200 million, according to Thomson Reuters —and up to $217 million for a big stake in American solar producer Silicon Ranch Corp.

    “With China now making a concerted push to green its power sector—and political risk stirred up by low-carbon advocacy unlikely to disappear soon—Shell’s strategy will probably pay off over the medium to long term. Nearer term, it can cause some headaches when oil prices unexpectedly rebound.”
    The reporter concludes that getting out of oil, and natural gas, production will be difficult for the oil majors.